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49 Cards in this Set

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kidneys
regulate:
plasma ionic composition
plasma volume
plasma osmolarity
plasma H+ ion concentration (pH)
Removal of metabolic waste products and foreign substances from the plasma
Regulation of plasma ionic composition
By increasing or decreasing specific ions in the urine, the kidneys regulate the concentration of these ions in the plasma.
Na+, Ca+, Mg2+, CI-, bicarbonate, and phosphates
Regulation of plasma volume
By controlling the rate of water which is excreted in the urine, the kidney regulate ________ __________, which has a direct effect on total blood volume, and blood pressure.
Reg. of plasma osmolarity
Because the kidneys vary the rate at which they excrete water relative solute
Reg. of plasma H+ ion concentration (pH)
By regulating the bicarbonate and hydrogen ions in the ions in the plasma, the kidneys partner w/the lungs to reg. the pH of the blood.
Removal of metabolic waste products and foreign substances from the plasma
clear the plasma of waste products and eliminate them from the body (excretion)

metabolic wastes include: urea and uric acid that are generated during protein and nucleic acid catabolism and foreign substances such as food additives, drugs, pestisides.
interstitial fluid
The kidneys regulate the volume and composition of the plasma they are regulate the volume and composition of ___________ _______.
volume
composition
The kidneys regulate the _______ and ___________ of all the body's fluids.
kidney secondary functions
endocrine organ - secretes erythropoetin & renin (enzyme)
activate vitamin D3
During periods of fasting, maintains a steady supply of plasma glucose by gluconeogenesis.
urinary system
The _______ _______ consists of 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder and a urethra.
renal arteries
The kidneys receive their blood supply from the _____ _______, which branch off the aorta and enter each kidney at a region called renal hilus.
20%
Despite their small fraction of body weight, the kidneys receive about ___ of the cardiac output under normal resting conditions.
because it provides them with O2 and nutrients

because it enables the kidneys to remove unneeded solutes and water from the blood at a rapid rate and eliminate them as urine.
Why is the rich blood supply so important to kidney function?
renal veins
The blood returns to the general circulation via the ______ _____, which run parallel to the renal arteries and drain into the inferior vena cava.
cortex
reddish-brown area
outer layer of kidney
medulla
dark
inner region of kidney
stripped appearance
renal pyramids
papillae (papilla)
collecting ducts
renal pyramids
papillae (papilla)
minor calcyes
The medulla is subdivided into a number of conical sections called ______ ________. At the tips of the renal pyramids, called ________, tubule called collecting ducts drain into common passageways called _____ _______.
major caylces
renal pelvis
The minor calyces converge to form 2-3 larger passageways called ______ _______, which drain into a single funnel-shaped passage called the ________ ________, the initial portion of the ureter.
nephrons
found in the renal pyramids

are the functional units of the kidneys
filter the blood and form the urine.
has a renal tube
renal tubule
The most obvious feature of a nephron is a long, coiled tube that forms a hairpin loop about midway along it length.
renal tubule
collecting ducts
During urine formation, the fluid flows through the ______ _______ where the fluid is modified. The fluid from the individual tubules eventually drains into a set of common passageways called ___________ ______.
modified
urine
In the collecting ducts, the fluid is further _________, and is called ________.
a renal corpuscle (filters blood)
a renal tubule (filtrate travels through here and becomes modified in form of urine)
What is an individual nephron composed of? (2)
bowman's capsule
glomerulus
What does a renal corpuscle consist of? (2)
bowman's capsule
a spherical structure at the inflow end of the renal tubule.
glomerulus
a tuft of capillaries
Renal corpuscle
where the blood is filtered & where tubular fluid, filtrate, has its origin.
afferent arteriole
Before the blood is filtered, it enters the glomerular capillaries via an ___________ __________.
glomerular filtration
As the blood flows through the glomerular capillaries, protein-free plasma filters across the walls of the capillaries into Bowman's capsule by a process called ___________ ___________.
efferent arteriole
The remaining blood leaves the glomerulus via an _________ __________.
glomerular filtration
This arrangement of two arterioles in series with a capillary bed btwn them is unique to the renal corpuscle and allows greater regulation of __________ _________.
sympathetic
smooth muscle
The walls of the afferent and efferent arterioles contains _______ _______ that can contract or relax in response to input from the __________ nervous system, thereby regulating their diameterand thus glomerular filtration.
proximal convoluted tubule
proximal straight tubule
As the glomerular filtrate is formed, it flows from Bowman's capsule to the initial portion of the renal tubule, called the _________ __________ _______ because of its proximity to the capsule and its highly folded or convoluted structure, and then to the __________ ________ ________.
Proximal tubules
loop of Henle
The _________ ________ empty into the ______ ___ ______, which is divided into 3 parts.
1. the descending limb
2. the thin ascending limb
3. the thick ascending limb
descending limb
The __________ _____ is a thin tubule leading from the proximal tubule and extending into the renal medulla.
thin ascending limb
At the tip of the loop, the tubule reverses direction, becoming the _____ _________ ____, which extends towards the cortex.
thick ascending limb
As the tubule approaches the cortex, it widens into the _____ _________ _____.
distal convoluted tubule
From the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, the fluid flows into the ______ __________ ________, which resembles the proximal tubule in appearance but is considerably shorter.
connecting tubule
The fluid then enters a short, straight terminal portion of the nephron, called the __________ ________, which joins the nephron with the collecting duct.
minor calyces
Several tubules empty their fluid into a single collecting duct. The collecting ducts then empty into the _______ ______.
juxtaglomerular apparatus
At a site where the initial portion of the distal tubule comes into contact with a nephron's afferent and efferent arterioles is a structure called the ____________ _________.
macula densa
granular cells
What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus components? (2)
macula densa
a specialized cluster of the tubule's epithelial cells
granular cells (juxtaglomerular cells)
specialized cells in the wall of the afferent arterioles that have granular cytoplasms due to the presence of numerous secretory granules containing a product called renin.
BV and BP
The juxtaglomerular apparatus plays an important role in regulating ______ _______ and ______ _________.
segmental arteries
interlobular arteries
arcuate arteries
Within the kidney, the renal artery branches into _________ ________, which branch into a number of smaller ___________ ________ that feed into another set of arteries called ________ _______.
interlobular arteries
The arcuate arteries then branch into ___________ ________, from which blood is carried to individual nephrons by the afferent arterioles, which lead into the glomerular capillary beds.
peritubular capillaries
vasa recta
loops of Henle
Coming off each of the glomerular capillary beds is the efferent arteriole, which then gives rise to one of two types of capillary beds: __________ __________, which branch from the efferent arterioles of cortical nephrons and are located close to the renal tubules, and ____ _____, which branch from the efferent arterioles of juxtaglomerular nephrons and networks of blood vessels forming hairpin loops that along the _____ __ ______ and collecting ducts, dipping deep into the renal medulla.
peritubular capillaries
vasa recta
arcuate vins
parallel
The _________ _________ and _____ _____ drain into the interlobular veins. From here, blood is carried away from nephrons by the _______ ______, and then interlobar veins, which run ________ to their respective arterial counterparts, eventually into the renal vein.