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41 Cards in this Set

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CAPVT XXXVIII Relative Clauses of Characteristic; Dative of Reference; Supines
x
Relative Clauses of Characteristic
relative clause which describes some general quality of an antecedent that is itself either general, indefinite, interrogative, or negative. The verb is subjunctive and its antecedent is often obviously general, negative, etc:
typical antecedent: sunt qui
there are people who
typical antecedent: quis est qui
who is there who
typical antecedent: nemo est qui
there is no one who
Quis est qui huic credat?
Who is there who trusts this man (of such a sort that he would trust this man)?
Nemo erat qui hoc sciret.
There was no one who knew this.
Sunt qui hoc faciant.
There are some who do this (of such a sort as to do this).
Is non est qui hoc faciat.
He is not a person who does (would do) this.
Hic est liber quem omnes legant.
This is the kind of book that all read (a book that all would read).
Hie est liber quem omnes legunt.
This is the book that all are reading (= a fact, hence the indicative).
Some relative clauses have the force of
result, purpose, causal, or adversative clauses
da mihi libros quos legam (same as: da mihi libros ut eos legam)
Give me books to read (Give me books that I may read them)
DATIVE OF REFERENCE OR INTEREST
used to indicate a person (or a thing) to whom some statement refers, or from whose perspective it is true, or to whom it is of special interest. [LIKE IN ITALIAN "PER ME"
Si quis metuens vivet, liber mihi non erit umquam.
If anyone lives in fear, he will not ever be free—as I see it (mihi) [or to my way of thinking or in my opinion.]
Nullius culpae mihi conscius sum.
In my own heart I am conscious of no fault
Claudia est sapiens multis.
To many people Claudia is wise.
SUPINES
verbal nouns, based on the same stem as the perfect passive participle; only two forms were in common use, the accusative and ablative singular (4th declension).
to praise: supine
acc. laudatum, abl. laudatu
to advise: supine
monitum, monitu
to do: supine
actum, actu
to hear: supine
auditum, auditu
to capture: supine
captum, captu
The ablative is used with
the neuter of certain adjectives to indicate in what respect a particular quality is applicable: e.g., mirabile dictu, amazing to say (lit., amazing in respect to saying); facile factu, easy to do.
The accusative
(which must not be confused with the perfect passive participle) is employed with verbs of motion to indicate purpose:
Ibant Romam rogatum pecuniam,
they were going to Rome to ask for money
persuasum amicis venerunt
they came to persuade their friends
Cognitive psychology is a
subdiscipline of psychology which explores internal mental processes.
It is the study of
how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems.
The sibling field of
cognitive neuroscience has provided evidence of physiological brain states that directly correlate with mental states, thus providing support for the central assumption of cognitive psychology
Evolutionary psychology (EP) is
an approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective.
It seeks to identify which
human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection.
Evolutionary psychology argues that
the mind has a modular structure similar to that of the body, with different evolutionarily developed modular adaptations serving different functions.
Computational theory of mind:
is the view that the human mind is an information processing system and that thinking is a form of computing.
The theory was proposed in its modern form by
Hilary Putnam in 1961 and developed by Jerry Fodor in the 60s and 70s. This view is common in modern cognitive psychology and is presumed by theorists of evolutionary psychology.
According to the computational theory of mind
the mind functions as a computer or symbol manipulator, computing input from the natural world to create outputs in the form of further mental or physical states
A computation is the process of taking input and
and following a step by step algorithm [a procedure for calculations (code)] to compute representations of the world.
The computational theory of mind requires
representation because 'input' into a computation comes in the form of symbols or representations of other objects.
A computer cannot compute an
actual object, it must interpret and represent the object in some form and then compute [code] the representation [sign].
In philosophy of mind, the language of thought hypothesis (LOTH) put forward by
American philosopher Jerry Fodor describes thoughts as represented in a "language" (sometimes known as mentalese) that allows complex thoughts to be built up by combining simpler thoughts in various ways.
In its most basic form the theory states that
thought follows the same rules as language: thought has syntax.