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69 Cards in this Set

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1. CAPVT XXVII
Irregular Comparison of Adjectives
2. Superlatives of -lis Adjectives:
Six adjectives ending in -lis form the superlative by adding -limus, -lima, -limum to the base:
3. easiest
facil-limus, -a, -um
4. most difficult
difficillimus, -a, -um
5. most Iike
simillimus, -a, -um
6. most unlike
dissimillimus, a-, -um
7. most slender
gracillimus
8. most low, humble
humillimus
9. Superlatives of -er Adjectives:
Adjectives with a masculine in -er, regardless of declension, form the superlative by adding -rimus, not to the base, but directly to this masculine -er:
10. freer; most free
liberior, -ius; liber-rimus, -a, -um
11. more beautiful; most beautiful
pulchrior, -ius; pulcherrimus, -a, -um
12. keener; most keen
acrior, acrius; acerrimus, -a, -um
13. Declension of Plus:
In the plural plus functions as an adjective (e.g., plures amici), but has mixed i-stem and consonant-stem forms; in the singular it functions not as an adjective at all, but as a neuter noun which is commonly followed by a genitive of the whole (e.g., plus pecuniae, more money, lit. more of money
14. Singular M & F:
none
15. Singular Neuter:
plus, pluris, ---, plus, plure
16. Plural M & F:
plures, plurium, pluribus, plures, pluribus
17. Plural Neurter:
plura, plurium, pluribus, plura, pluribus
Chapter 25 Exercitationes
1. Define and explain the basic functions of an “infinitive.” 2. Recognize, form, and translate the six infinitives of regular Latin verbs 3. Define, recognize, and translate the “indirect statement” construction
1. “Quisque,” inquit, “semper putat suas res esse magnas.”
“Each person,” he says, “always thinks that his own affairs (circumstances) are important.” (The ind. state. could here be translated more lit., “considers his own affairs to be important.”)
2. Postea audivimus servos donorum causa laboravisse, ut milites fideles heri narraverant.
Afterwards we heard that the slaves had worked for the sake of gifts (benefits), as the loyal soldiers had reported (told us) yesterday. (The perf. inf. indicates an action that occurred before that of the main vb.; if the main vb. is a past tense, then the inf. must be translated as pluperf., as indicated in the chapter’s examples.)
3. Vicini nostri vim ignis magna virtute dehinc averterunt, quod laudem atque dona cupiverunt.
Our neighbors then diverted the force of the fire with great courage, because they desired praise and gifts (rewards).
4. Hoc signum periculi totam gentem nostram tanget, nisi hostem ex urbe excipere ac ab Italia pellere poterimus.
This sign of danger will touch (affect) our entire nation, unless we will be able to (unless we can) take the enemy out of (remove the enemy from) the city and drive him out of Italy.
5. Duce feroci Carthaginis expulso, spes fidesque virorum magnanimorum rem publicam continebunt.
When the fierce leader of Carthage has been expelled, the hope and faith (loyalty) of courageous men will hold the republic together.
6. Cur iucundus Horatius culpas humanas in saturis semper ostendebat atque ridebat?
Why was the pleasant Horace constantly pointing out and laughing at (ridiculing) human faults in his satires?
7. Credimus fidem antiquam omnibus gentibus iterum alendam esse.
We believe that ancient faith (the trustworthiness/loyalty of earlier times) should again be fostered by all nations. (Use of the pass. periphrastic inf. was common in ind. state.)
8. Dux, officium suscepturus, imperium accepit et imperator factus est.
The leader, (as he was) about to assume office, received the power (military command) and was made (appointed) general.
9. Res publica, ut ait, libellis huius modi tolli potest.
The Republic, as he says, can be destroyed by little volumes (pamphlets) of this sort. (Political pamphleteering was common in ancient Rome; cf. Eng. “libel.”)
10. Aliqui negant hostes victos servitute umquam opprimendos esse.
Some men say that the conquered enemy should never be oppressed by slavery. (Hostis was often used in the pl. to refer to “the enemy” in a collective sense.)
11. Credunt magistram sapientem veritatem patefacturam esse.
They believe that the wise teacher will reveal the truth.
12. Quisquis veritatem quaeret atque recipiet bene educabitur.
Whoever shall seek and receive (embrace) the truth will be well educated.
13. We thought that your sisters were writing the letter.
Putavimus (cogitavimus) sorores (tuas/vestras) litteras scribere. (This and the three following Eng.-to-Lat. sents., each using a form of scribo, provide simple practice with each of the three inf. tenses.)
14. They will show that the letter was written by the brave slavegirl.
Ostendent (demonstrabunt) litteras a serva forti scriptas esse.
15. The orator said that the book had never been written.
Orator dixit librum numquam scriptum esse.
16. We hope that the judge’s wife will write those two letters tomorrow.
Speramus uxorem iudicis illas duas litteras cras scripturam esse.
Chapter 26 Exercitationes
1. Explain what is meant by “comparison of adjectives.” 2. Recognize, form, decline, and translate regular adjectives in the comparative and superlative degrees. 3. Recognize and translate the uses of quam with comparative and superlative adjectives. 4. Define, recognize, and translate the “ablative of comparison” construction.
1. Ille dux nescivit consilium nuntiatum esse et se imperium protinus suscepturum esse.
That leader did not know that the plan had been announced and he was about to (would) take (up/over) command immediately.
2. “Quidam,” inquit, “imperium quondam petebant et liberos viros opprimere cupiebant.”
“Certain men,” he says, “were at one time seeking supreme power and desiring to overwhelm (were desirous of oppressing) free men.”
3. Eodem die decem milia hostium ab duce fidelissimo aversa ac pulsa sunt; multi milites vulnera receperant et in agris iacebant.
On the same day ten thousand of the enemy were turned back and driven out by the very loyal leader (commander); many soldiers had received wounds (had been wounded) and were lying in the fields.
4. Morte tyranni ferocis nuntiata, quisque se ad oratorem potentissimum magna spe vertit.
After (when/since) the death of the savage tyrant had been announced, each man turned [himself] to the very powerful orator with great hope. (“Turn” is more often in Eng. used intransitively, so the dir. obj. sē/“himself” is better omitted here. Vertit could also be pres. tense, in which case the translation would be, “After the fierce tyrant’s death was announced, each man turns. . . .”)
5. Ridens, scriptor illius fabulae sapiens aliquid iucundius dehinc narravit.
Laughing (smiling), the wise author of that story then narrated something more (rather) pleasant (told some more pleasant tale).
6. His rebus auditis, adulescentes gemini propter pecuniae cupiditatem studium litterarum relinquent.
When these things have been heard, the twin youths (the young twins) will abandon their study of (interest in) literature because of a desire of (for) money.
7. Regina fortissima Carthaginis postea ostendit fidem semper esse sibi cariorem divitiis.
The very strong queen of Carthage showed afterwards that faithfulness was always dearer to her than riches. (Ostendit could be pres. tense: “shows that loyalty is always. . . .”)
8. Negavit se umquam vidisse servam fideliorem quam hanc.
He denied that he had ever (he said that he had never) seen a (female) slave more faithful than this one.
9. Iucundior modus vitae hominibus nunc quaerendus est.
A more pleasant way of life must now be sought by men (Men should now seek a pleasanter way of life).
10. Credimus illos viginti liberos viros feminasque vitam quam iucundissimam agere.
We believe that those twenty free men and women are leading (living) the most agreeable life possible.
11. Imperator centum milites fortissimos prae se heri misit.
Yesterday the commander sent his hundred bravest soldiers ahead of him.
12. Lux in illa casa non fuit clarissima, quod familia paucas fenestras patefecerat.
The light in that house was not very bright, because the family had opened few windows.
13. Amicos tristes excepit, ad mensam invitavit, et eis perfugium ac solacium hic dedit.
He received his sad friends, invited them to his table (to dinner), and gave them refuge and solace here.
14. What is sweeter than a very pleasant life?
Quid est dulcius quam vita iucundissima (dulcius vita iucundissima)?
15. Certain men,however, say that death is sweeter than life.
Quidam (viri), autem, dicunt (aiunt) mortem esse dulciorem vita (quam vitam). (Students may want to use certi here, but certus means “certain” in the sense of “sure” or “reliable,” whereas “certain” in this context means “some” or “specific,” and so quidam, newly introduced in this ch., is needed.)
16. When these three very sure signs had been reported, we sought advice and comfort from the most powerful leader.
His tribus signis certissimis nuntiatis, consilium et solacium (solaciumque) ex duce potentissimo petivimus.
17. In that story the author says that all men seek as happy lives as possible.
Auctor (scriptor) in illa fabula dicit omnes homines (viros) vitas quam beatissimas (felicissimas) petere. (While ordinarily omnes alone could be employed substantively for “all men,” using homines here avoids the potentially misleading juxtaposition omnes vitas; since the reference is to men in general, i.e. mankind, homines is a better choice than viros.)
18. This light is always brighter than the other.
Haec lux semper est clarior quam alia (clarior alia).
Chapter 27 Exercitationes
1. Recognize, form, and translate adjectives with irregular superlatives and other adjectives with irregular comparisons. 2. Recognize, form, and translate the irregular adjective/noun plūs.
1. Quisque cupit quam pulcherrima atque utilissima dona dare.
Each man wishes to give the loveliest and most useful gifts possible.
2. Quidam turpes habent plurima sed etiam plura petunt.
Certain reprehensible men have very many things (possessions) but strive for even more.
3. Ille orator, ab tyranno superbissimo expulsus, ducem iucundiorem et leges aequiores dehinc quaesivit.
That orator, having been (when he had been) expelled by that very arrogant tyrant, then sought a more agreeable leader and fairer laws.
4. Summum imperium optimis viris semper petendum est.
The highest power should always be sought by the best men.
5. Senex nepotibus tristibus casam patefecit et eos trans limen invitavit.
The old man opened his house to his sad grandsons and invited them across the threshold.
6. Ostendit ultimum signum luce clarissima ab hostibus illa nocte datum esse.
He showed that the the final signal had been given by the enemy [on] that night with a very bright light.
7. Iste tyrannus pessimus negavit se viros liberos umquam oppressisse.
That very bad tyrant denied that he had ever oppressed free men.
8. Fidelissimus servus plus cenae ad mensam accipiebat quam tres peiores.
The very faithful slave received more dinner at the table than the three rather bad slaves.
9. Aiunt hunc auctorem vitam humillimam nunc hic agere.
They say that this author is now leading a very humble life here.
10. Cur di superi oculos a rebus humanis eo tempore averterunt?
Why did the gods above turn their eyes (attention) away from human affairs at that time?
11. Habesne pecuniam et res tuas prae re publica?
Do you hold money and your own circumstances before (consider your money and possessions more important than) the republic?
12. Solem post paucas nubes gracillimas in caelo hodie videre possumus.
We can see the sun in the sky today behind a few very wispy clouds.
13. Some believe that very large cities are worse than very small ones.
Quidam credunt maximas urbes esse peiores minimis (quam minimas).
14. In return for the three rather small gifts, the young man gave even more and prettier ones to his very sad mother.
Adulescens (iuvenis), pro tribus donis minoribus, matri tristissimae etiam plura ac pulchriora dedit.
15. Those very large mountains were higher than these.
Illi maximi montes fuerunt (erant) altiores his (quam hi).