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33 Cards in this Set

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*** are the major energy storage compounds in mammals and plant seeds.
Triglycerides
Metabolic oxidation of fats yields *#* kcal/g whereas carbohydrates and proteins yield only *#* kcal/g.
9 kcal/g --- 37 J/g
4 kcal/g --- 17 J/g
Typical 70-kg human fuel reserves:
400,000 kJ in ***
100,000 kJ in ***
2500 kJ in ***
170 kJ in ***
body fat
protein
glycogen
glucose
Triacylglycerols are made of a glycerol *** with fatty acids *** at each hydroxyl.
moiety
esterified
*** ***(mobilizes stored fat) is activated by P in a ***-mediated kinase cascade stimulated by glucagon or epinephrine or corticotropin.
triacylglycerol lipase
cAMP
Triacylglycerol lipase is activated by P in a cAMP-mediated kinase cascade stimulated by the binding of *** or *** or *** to plasma membrane receptors.
glucagon
epinephrine
corticotropin
1) Triacylglycerol lipase catalyzes the release of fatty acids from...
2) Then *** lipase and *** lipase catalyze the release of the other fatty acids.
1) carbons 1 or 3 of the glycerol moiety
2) Diacylglycerol --- monoacylglycerol
--- Glycerol & Fatty Acid Products ---
1) Exit adipocyte tissue by *** *** and
2) move to the blood plasma where they bind *** ***
3) which can bind to up to *** FA molecules.
1) passive diffusion
2) serum albumin
3) 10
Glycerol taken up by the liver...
1) P'ed and *** to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and then
2) *** to glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate and
3) used in *** or ***.
1) reduced
2) isomerized
3) glycolysis or gluconeogenesis
Glycerol taken up by the liver...
1) P'ed and reduced to *** ***
2) isomerized to *** *** and
used in glycolysis or gluconeogenesis.
1) dihydroxyacetone phosphate
2) glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate
--- Stage of Fatty Acid Oxidation ---
1) Activation of fatty ***
2) Transfer and transport of *** group to *** and
3) Beta-oxidation cycle in the ***.
1) acyl-CoA
2) acyl --- carnitine
3) mitochondria
Fatty acids are metabolized primarily as *** of CoA.
thioesters
--- Components of CoA---
1) ***
2) ***
3) ***
1) Pantotenic acid
2) 3-phosphoadenoside diphsophate
3) b-mercaptoethylamine
--- Pantothenic Acid ---
1) AKA vitamin *** and is water-soluble.
2) Chemically it is the amide between *** and ***.
3) It's required for ACP(*** *** ***) involved in F.A. biosynthesis.
1) B5
2) D-pantoate and beta-alanine
3) acyl carrier protein (ACP)
--- Fatty-Acid Metabolism ---
1) Most natural unsaturated F.A.s are cis/trans
2) The intermediates of saturated F.A.s are cis/trans.
1) cis
2) trans
--- Intermediates in Fatty-Acid Metabolism ---
1) Saturated F.A.s give *** delta-*#*-unsaturated acyl-CoA.
2) UnSaturated F.A.s give *** delta-*#*-unsaturated acyl-CoA.
1) trans --- 2
2) trans --- 3
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) Occurs in these organs...
2) within these organelles...
3) w/preferred substrates of ### or ### C-atoms.
1) Endoplasmic Reticulum
2) liver and kidney
3) 10 or 12
--- Fatty Acid Metabolism ---
1) Mitochondrial b-oxidation acts at the *** end.
2) Endoplasmic Reticulum b-oxidation acts at the *** end.
1) carboxyl
2) omega
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) 1st step --- CYP adds *** group onto the omega-C
2) which comes from *** and involves the electron donor ***.
3) 2nd step --- ADH oxidizes hydroxyl group to an ***.
4) ALDH oxidizes this group to an ***.
1) hydroxyl
2) molecular oxygen (O2) --- NADPH
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) Enzymes of the 1st step.
2) Enzymes of the 2nd step.
1) cytochrome P450
2) Alcohol DeHydrogenase --- ALdehyde DeHydrogenase.
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) 2nd step --- ADH oxidizes hydroxyl group to an ***.
2) ALDH oxidizes this group to an ***.
1) aldehyde
2) carboxylic acid
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) 3rd step --- *** end can be attached to CoA and enter the
mitochondria undergoing normal b-oxidation.
2) Each pass of the "***-ended" F.A. through the pathway
3) yields dicarboxylic acids such as *** and ***.
1) Either

2) double
3) succinate --- adipate
-- Synthesis of Ketone Bodies ---
1) In fasting or diabetes, OAA is used for *** formation...
2) and *** units from acetyl-CoA are diverted to...
3) form the ketone bodies acetoacetate, *** and acetone.
1) glucose
2) acetate
3) D-beta-hydroxybutyrate
-- Synthesis of Ketone Bodies ---
are collectively know as...
1) ***
2) ***
3) ***
1) acetoacetate
2) D-beta-hydroxybutyrate
3) acetone
-- Ketone Bodies ---
1) Acetone is formed by spontaneous *** of *** as well as...
2) the catalytic action of the enzyme *** ***.
3) Acetone can/can't be converted back to ***.
1) decarboxylation of acetoacetate
2) acetoacetate decarboxylase
3) can't --- acetyl-CoA
-- Ketone Bodies ---
1) Unlike F.A. are *** and can cross the *** barrier.
2) Synthesis in liver is effectively *** because the...
3) enzyme catalyzing the conversion of *** to *** isn't present.
1) water soluble --- blood-brain
2) irreversible
3) acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA
-- Ketone Bodies ---
1) *** and *** are synthesized in the mitochondria of
2) *** cells where they then diffuse into the bloodstream
3) and are metabolized by the *** and ***.
1) acetoacetate and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate
2) liver
3) brain and muscles
-- Synthesis of Ketone Bodies ---
are collectively know as...
1) ***
2) ***
3) ***
1) acetoacetate
2) D-beta-hydroxybutyrate
3) acetone
--- Ketone Bodies ---
Under normal conditions:
1) Utilized as energy source in *** and ***.
Under starvation conditions:
2) *** can derive ### % of it’s energy from here.
3) Spares *** protein from being scavenged for ***.
1) cardiac muscle --- renal cortex
2) Brain --- 70%
3) muscle --- gluconeogenesis
--- Ketone Bodies ---
***: May occur during starvation, diabetes or alcoholism
Ketoacidosis
--- Ketoacidosis ---
1) Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels in s***...
2) lower blood pH below ### and sometimes as low as ###.
2) Normal pH of blood is ### to ###.
1) serum
2) 7.35 --- 6.9
3) 7.35-7.45
--- Regulation of Fatty Acid Oxidation ---
In the liver, fatty acyl-CoA formed in the cytosol has these pathways...
1) *** in the *** or
2) *** in the ***.
1) b-oxidation --- mitochondria
2) conversion into triacylglycerols and phospholipids --- cytosol
--- Regulation of Fatty Acid Oxidation ---
Inhibition of transferring fatty acyl-CoA into the mitochondria.
1) Inhibition of *** acyltransferase I by ***-CoA.
2) Inhibition of *** dehydrogenase by an elevated ratio of [NADH]/[NAD+].
3) Inhibition of *** by high levels of acetyl-CoA.
1) carnitine --- malonyl
2) beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA
3) thiolase