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87 Cards in this Set

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What is the family for influenza?
Orthomyxoviridae
What animals get influenzavirus A?
Humans
Horses
Pigs
Birds
Marine mammals
What animals get influenzavirus B?
Humans
What animals get influenzavirus C?
Pigs
Humans
What surface antigens are influenza viruses classified by?
Hemagluttinin (15 for A)
Neuraminidase (9 for A)
What is the distribution of HA's in birds, humans, pigs, and horses?
Birds - all 15
Humans - 1,2,3, & 5
Pigs - 1 & 3
Horses - 3 & 7
What is the distribution of NA's in birds, humans, pigs, and horses?
Birds - all 9
Humans - 1 & 2
Pigs - 1 & 2
Horses - 7 & 8
Has H5N1 ever infected a humans being?
No
What was the origin of the canine flu of 2005?
Equine Influenza Virus H3N8
How is influenza A transmitted (include the reservoir)?
Wild aquatic birds are the reservoir and it is shed in their feces
Define antigenic drift.
Minor changes in the structure of HA and NA of a virus from year to year, but the subtype remains the same
Define antigenic shift
Major changes in the structure of HA and NA of a virus changing the subtype and causing a pandemic
Define reassortment
When 2 viruses of different species infect the same cell causing their genes to mix forming a new virus
What are the clinical signs of Influenzavirus A in birds?
Drop in egg production
Neurologic
Depressed, anorexic, ruffled feathers
Swollen comb, cyanotic
Conjunctivitis, resp signs
What are the symptoms of avian influenza (A) in humans?
Flu like symptoms (fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches)
Also possibly:
Eye infections
Pneumonia
Acute respiratory distress
What are the 3 attributes a pandemic must have?
A novel virus - all or most people are susceptible
Transmissible person to person
Wide geographic spread
(T/F) Risk of avian influenza is very high
False - risk is low, high occupational exposure may increase risk
What are the 3 CDC recommendations to people traveling to Asia to avoid contracting avian influenza?
Avoid poultry farms, contact with animals in live food markets, and any surfaces that appear to be contaminated w/ feces from poultry or other animals?
What tests are used to diagnose avian influenza?
Virus isolation best
Confirmation of presence of virus by: AGID, ELISA, RT-PCR
What is the treatment for avian influenza?
Vaccination is best
Zanamivir and Oseltamivir are antiviral agents that will work against H5N1 - they inhibit neuraminidase
H5N1 strains are resistant to Amantadine and rimantadine
What are the pros and cons of a traditional killed vaccine vs inactivated vaccines?
Killed - effective, only protects against other avian flu viruses w/ same H type
Inactivated - expensive, no cross protection btwn H types, possible creation of a reassortment virus - used in emergencies
Describe the research being done at Purdue for avian influenza.
Basically a recombinant adenovirus would carry the gene of interest (H5N1) into the target cell which would produce a therapeutic protein. The adenovirus could be human or bovine or porcine.
How do humans contract anthrax?
Skin contact w/, ingestion of, or inhalation of spores
What is the most common form of anthrax and what are its symptoms?
Cutaneous anthrax - >90% cases
Black eschar forms several days after exposure (touching contaminated skin/wool and enters through cuts/abrasions)
Local edema, regional lymphadenopathy, fever, malaise, <1% mortality if given antibiotics
Describe the pathogenesis of the GI form of anthrax.
Consumption of spore-contaminated meat leads to germination in gut lymphoid tissue leads to generalized sepsis syndrome
Describe the pathogenesis of the inhalational form of anthrax
airborne spores <5 micrometers in diameter are inhaled infecting local and regional ln's causing toxemia and widespread organ system dz
What species of Brucella can infect humans?
B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis
What are the symptoms of brucellosis in humans?
lymphadenomegaly, splenomegaly, fever (undulant), profuse sweating, testicular swelling, wt loss, lethargy, flu-like symptoms (muscle pain, malaise, headache)
How is brucellosis transmitted to humans?
Consumption of unpasteurized milk products from infected cows, sheep and goats ("village cheeses" in other parts of world)
Through inf'd tissue, blood, urine, vaginal discharge, aborted fetuses, especially placentas
Self-injection w/ vaccine
No person-to-person
What is the treatment for brucellosis
doxycycline or quinolones plus rifampicin
What is the agent for zoonotic tuberculosis?
Mycobacterium bovis (other agents are M. tuberculosis (most common) and M. africanum (only in Africa))
How are humans infected w/ M. bovis?
Historically - ingestion of unpasteurized milk/dairy products - uncommon now in developed countries
Now - aerosol infection or contact w/ cutaneous TB by animal handlers
What people are most cases of bovine TB seen in?
Elderly people (reactivated infections)
Oversease travelers and immigrants
What is the rule in regards to TB for importing cattle into Indiana?
All intact female dairy animals over 6 mo must test negative for TB w/in 60 days of entering the state
What states have lost their TB free status?
AZ, TX, NM, CA, MI (split), NE, MN
Name the infectious agent for Q-fever
Coxiella burnetii (obligate intracellular bacterium)
How is Q-fever transmitted
inhalation of dust/aerosols w/ spores in it (only 1 spore necessary to start infection)
Consumption of raw milk
Where/How is Q-fever shed?
In milk, amnionic fluid, and on the placenta of sheep and cattle (goats)
Who is at the most risk of acquiring Q-fever?
Immunocompromised people, laboratory staff in research facilities containing sheep
What are the symptoms in people w/ Q-fever?
1/2 are asymptomatic
Fever, malaise, headache, occasionally pneumonitis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis
Name the 4 major serotypes of L. interrogans (Note: most common zoonosis worldwide)
L. hardjo (cow, horse), L. icterohemorrhagiae (rat, dog), L. canicola (dog), L. pomona (pig, cow)
What are the symptoms of leptospirosis in humans (and which strain is most common)
L. hardjo
Asymptomatic
High fever, severe headache, chills, muscle aches, vomiting
May include:
Jaundice, conjunctivitis, abd pain, diarrhea, rash
Untreated goes on to:
kidney damage, meningitis, liver failure, resp distress but death is rare
How is Leptospirosis transmitted to humans?
Usually ingestion of urine-contaminated water
Also bathing or swimming in contaminated water, contact by vets or dairy workers w/ cow urine and birth fluids of inf'd
What is the source of rabies in cattle (where it is more common than dogs), sheep, and pigs
Foxes, skunks, raccoons, coyotes, vampire bats (in S. America)
Sheep - multiple animals may present at same time since multiple animals could have been attacked at once
What are the signs of rabies in cattle, sheep, and pigs
Cattle: (70% get furious form) salivation, behavioral change, tremors, bellowing, aggression, hyperesthesia, hyperexcitability, pharyngeal paralysis
Sheep: aggression, sexual excitement, wool pulling, paralysis
Pigs: very variable - aggression or dullness and incoordination, salivation, chewing movements, convulsions
Which kinds of canine zoonoses are the most common?
Parasitic and Bacterial
What does Leptospirosis cause (most) in dogs?
ARF (most common cause of ARF in dogs)
often w/ liver failure too
Which serovar is most often found in humans?
L. grippotyphosa
What are the ways to dx Lepto?
Culture (3-6 mo)
Renal/hepatic biopsy (risky)
Dark-field micro, culture, FA, PCR of urine
Serum Ab titers (MAT)
How do you treat Lepto in a dog?
7-14 d of ampicillin/amoxicillin then the rest of the month w/ doxy
Which state has the most Lepto cases reported in humans?
Hawaii
What are the symptoms of Lepto (as per Dr. Moore)
Fever, chills, myalgia
Meningitis, hepatitis, renal dz, hemolytic anemia, rash
Icteric form severe and rare
What is the reservoir in endemic areas for Leishmania?
Dogs (foxhounds in kennels in US)
How is Leishmaniasis transmitted?
Sandflies
Possibly dog-to-dog venereally
What are the clinical signs of Leishmaniasis in dogs
Asymptomatic
Chronic wasting, wt loss
Alopecia, skin ulcerations, scaling
Conjunctivitis, ant uveitis, retinitis
Lymphadenopathy
Pr-losing nephropathy
How is Leishmaniasis dx'd?
Cytology ID of amastigotes
Ab test
PCR of DNA
How is Leishmaniasis tx'd?
Nothing curative
Allopurinol and alimony
Why is Leishmania not very risky in the US?
The US lacks a fully competent vector
What are the reservoirs for Lyme dz (Borrelia burgdorferi)
Deer, mice
How is Lyme's dz zoonotic?
Dogs bring the vector closer to people (ticks)
Define Public Health
the combination of sciences, skills and beliefs that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all people
Define Health
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of dz or infirmity
Define zoonosis
A dz that can be transmitted from non-human vertebrates to people (NOT via arthropod, NOT dz's common to humans and animals)
Define Emerging zoonosis
Dz caused by a totally new or previously known agent but now occurring in spp where dz was previously unknown
Define Isozoonosis
a dz showing similar clinical signs and pathology in human and animal hosts (like TB)
Define Host
An organism that harbors a virus, parasite, mutual partner, or commensal partner, typically providing nourishment and shelter
Define primary host
definitive host - where parasite grows mature
Define secondary host
Intermediate host - harbors parasite for a short transition period
Define remote zoonosis
Strictly human dz resulting from an ancient cross-species transmission event (AIDS)
Define Reservoir
Animate or inanimate objects on which a dz agent usu lives and which is often the source of infection by the agent
Define vector
An organism that does not cause dz itself, but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another (WNV)
Define Vehicle
An object or substance serving as an intermediate btwn an infected and a receptive host (water)
Define Anthropozoonosis
Dz maintained in animal populations and transmitted to humans (Lyme, Hanta, Rabies)
Define Zooanthroponosis
Dz maintained in humans and transmitted to animals (Ameobiasis to dogs, TB)
Define Amphixenosis
Dz maintained in both human and animal population (Staph, Pseudomonas)
Define Metazoonosis
Cycle requiring both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts (arboviruses)
Define Saprozoonosis
Cycle requires inanimate reservoirs or development sites as well as vertebrate spp (listeriosis)
Define Orthozoonosis
Maintenance can be achieved w/ only one spp (rabies)
Define Cyclozoonosis
Maintenance requires more than one vertebrate spp, but no invertebrate vector (Taeniasis, Baylisascaris)
What are the 2 objectives of the SPS Agreement (Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures)
To recognize the soveriegn right of countries to provide a level of health protection they deem appropriate
To ensure SPS measures are not unnecessary, or scientifically unjustifiable (to restrict trade)
What two aspects of SPS provide scientific basis?
Regionalization and Risk Analysis
What do other countries consider when deciding whether to approve regionalization of a country with dz?
Veterinary infrastructure, Dz has been studied (prevalence in dz'd area and others), active dz control program, vaccination status, degree of separation from dz'd area, animal mvmt is controlled, livestock demographics, type and extent of dz surveillance, diagnostic lab capabilities, emergency response capabilities
What are the 3 components of the risk analysis
Risk assessment
Risk management
Risk communication
What is harmonization and who is responsible for it?
The establishment, recognition, and application of common SPS measures by diff't countries
WHO
What 3 international organizations are responsible for harmonization (and setting those standards)
Codex Alimentarius (food safety, human health)
International Office of Epizootics (OIE) - animal health and zoonoses
International Plant Protection Convention - plant health
What is transparency?
Achievement of clarity, predictability, and information regarding trade policies, rules, and procedures of the WHO
What are 3 different fields of activity involved in transparency?
Publishing regulations
Notifications
Information