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141 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_______ (Gr. zoon, animal + logos, to study)is the study of animals.
zoon (Greek)
logos (Greek)
to study
Study of the structure of entire organisms and their parts
Study of the structure and function of cells
Study of the interaction of organisms with their environment
Study of the development of an animal from the fertilized egg to birth or hatching
Study of the mechanisms of transmission of traits from parents to offspring
Study of tissues
Study of subcellular details of structure and function
Molecular biology
Study of animals that live in or on other organisms at the expense of the host
Study of the function of organisms and their parts
Study of the classification of, and the evolutionary interrelationships among, animal groups
Study of insects
Study of amphibians and reptiles
Study of fishes
Study of mammals
Study of birds
Study of protozoa
All ________ have two pairs of jaws. The mouth jaws are used for scraping of nipping food, and the throat jaws are used for crushing or macerating food before it is swallowed.
____________ processes have resulted in an estimated 4 to 100 million species of animals living today. (Only 1 million animal species have been described.)
_______ _________ (L. evolutus, unroll) is change in the genetic makeup of populations of organisms over time.
Organic evolution
It is the source of animal diversity, and it explains family relationships within animal groups.
Organic evolution
_________ not only explains why animals appear and function as they do, but it also explains family relationships within the animal kingdom.
Although ____ ___ _____ (1707-1778) is primarily remembered for collecting and classifying plants, his system of naming - ________ ____________ - has also been adopted for animals.
Karl von Linne; binomial nomenclature
A two-part name describes each kind of organism. The first part indicates the _____, and the second part indicates the _______ to which the organism belongs.
genus; species
Above the species and genus levels, organisms are grouped into ________, ______, _______, _____, ________, and _______, based on a hierarchy of relatedness.
families, orders, classes, phyla, kingdoms, and domains
____________ theory has affected zoology like no other single theory.
_______ (Gr. okios, house + logos, to study) is the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment.
Two problems, global ______________ and the ____________ or world resources, are the focus of out ecological concerns.
overpopulation; exploitation
Global ______________ is at the root of virtually all other environmental problems.
It is estimated that the world population will reach ____ billion by the year 2100.
An __________ _______ is in imminent danger of extinction throughout its range (where it lives).
endangered species
A __________ _______ is likely to become endangered in the near future.
threatened species
_____ are the basic organizational units of life.
__________ cells exhibit a considerable degree of internal organization, with a dynamic system of membranes forming internal compartments called __________.
Eukaryotic; organelles
_____ are the functional units of life, in which all of the chemical reactions necessary for the maintenance and reproduction of life take place.
There are two basic types of cells: ___________ and __________.
prokaryotes; eukaryotes
The ___________ lack nuclei and other membrane-bound organelles.
All __________ ("true nucleus") have cells with a membrane-bound nucleus containing DNA.
The ______ ________ is the outer boundary of the cell.
plasma membrane
_________ (Gr. kytos, hollow vessel + plasm, fluid) is the portion of the cell outside the nucleus.
The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm is called the _______.
The _______ is the cell control center.
The ___________ is the semifluid material in the nucleus.
In 1972, S. Jonathan Singer and Garth Nicolson developed the _____-______ model of membrane structure.
According to the fluid-mosaic model, a membrane is a double layer (bilayer) of proteins and _____________, and is fluid rather than solid.
The "_____" of both layers of phospholipid molecules attract each other and are repelled by water (they are hydrophobic, "water dreading").
As a result, the polar spherical "_____" (the phosphate portion) are located over the cell surfaces (outer and inner) and are "water attracting" (they are hydrophilic).
The ___________ molecules are embedded in the interior of the membrane and help to make the membrane less permeable to water-soluble substances.
The membrane proteins are individual molecules attached to the inner or outer membrane surface (__________ proteins) or embedded in it (_________ proteins).
peripheral; intrinsic
Other _________ proteins help to move ions or molecules across the membrane, and still others attach the membrane to the cell's inner scaffolding (the ____________) or to various molecules outside the cell.
intrinsic; cytoskeleton
Surface carbohydrates and portions of the proteins and lipids make up the __________ ("cell coat").
The __________ is necessary for cell-to-cell recognition and the behavior of certain cells, and it is a key component in coordinating cell behavior in animals.
What are the functions of cell membranes?
1. Regulate material moving into and out of the cell, and from one part of the cell to another; 2. Separate the inside of the cell from the outside; 3. Separate various organelles within the cell; 4. Provide a large surface area on which specific chemical reactions can occur; 5. separate cells from one another; and 6. are a site for receptors containing specific cell identification markers that differentiate one cell type from another.
The ability of the plasma membrane to let some substances in and keep others out is called _________ ____________ (L. permeare or per, through + meare, pass) and is essential for maintaining a "steady state" within the cell.
selective permeability
Molecules move randomly at all temperatures above absolute zero (-273 C) (due to spontaneous molecular motion) from areas where they are highly concentrated to areas of lower concentration, until they are evenly distributed in a state of dynamic equilibrium. This process is ______ _________ (L. diffundere, to spread).
simple diffusion
______ _________ accounts for most of the short-distance transport of substances moving into and out of cells.
simple diffusion
Large molecules and some of those not soluble in lipids require assistance in passing across the plasma membrane. These molecules use ___________ _________, which, like simple diffusion, requires no energy input.
facilitated diffusion
No cell energy is needed. Molecules move "down" a concentration gradient. Molecules spread out randomly from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration until they are distributed evenly in a state of dynamic equilibrium.
Simple diffusion
Carrier (transport) proteins in a plasma membrane temporarily bind with molecules and help them pass across the membrane. Other proteins from channels through which molecules move across the membrane.
Facilitated diffusion
Water molecules diffuse across selectively permeable membranes from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.
Essentially protein-free plasma moves across capillary walls due to a pressure gradient across the wall.
Active transport Specific carrier proteins in the plasma membrane bind with molecules or ions to help them cross the membrane against a concentration gradient. Cellular energy is required.
Active transport
The bulk movement of material into a cell by the formation of a vesicle.
The plasma membrane encloses small amounts of fluid droplets (in a vesicle) and takes them into the cell.
The plasma membrane forms a vesicle around a solid particle of other cell and draws it into the phagocytic cell.
Extracellular molecules bind with specific receptor proteins on a plasma membrane, causing the membrane to invaginate and draw molecules into the cell.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
The movement of material out of a cell. A vesicle (with particles) fuses with the plasma membrane and expels particles or fluids from the cell across the plasma membrane. The reverse of endocytosis.
The term ________ (Gr. tonus, tension) refers to the relative concentration of solutes in the water inside and outside the cell.
For example, in an ________ (Gr. isos, equal + tonus, tension) solution, the solute concentration is the same inside and outside a red blood cell.
In a __________ (Gr. hyper, above) solution, the solute concentration is higher outside the red blood cell than inside.
Because the concentration of water molecules inside the cell is higher than outside, water moves out of the cell, which shrinks. This condition is called _________ in red blood cells.
In a _________ (Gr. hypo, under) solution, the solute concentration is lower outside the RBC than inside.
Conversely, the concentration of water molecules is higher outside the cell than inside. As a result, water moves into the cell, which swells and may burst. This condition is called _____.
__________ is a process that forces small molecules across selectively permeable membranes with the aid of hydrostatic (water) pressure (or some other externally applied force, such as blood pressure).
Cell drinking
Cell eating
Located within microtubule-organizing center; contains nine triple microtubules. Forms basal body of cilia and flagella; functions in mitotic spindle formation.
Organelle that contains chlorophyll and is involved in photosynthesis. Traps, transforms, and uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.
Threadlike processes. They move small particles past fixed cells and are major form of locomotion in some cells.
Cilia, flagella
The endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, vesicles. Organelles, functioning as a system, to modify, package, and distribute newly formed proteins and lipids.
Cytomembrane system
Semifluid enclosed within plasma membrane; consists of fluid cytosol, organelles, and other structures. Dissolves substances; houses organelles and vesicles.
Interconnecting microfilaments and microtubules; flexible cellular framework. Assists in cell movement; provides support; site for binding of specific enzymes.
Fluid part of cytoplasm; enclosed within plasma membrane; surrounds nucleus. Houses organelles; serves as fluid medium for metabolic reactions.
Extensive membrane system extending throughout the cytoplasm from the plasma membrane to the nuclear envelope. Storage and internal transport; rough type is a site for attachment of ribosomes; smooth type makes lipids.
Endoplasmic reticulum
Stacks of disklike membranes. Sorts, packages, and routes cell's synthesized products.
Golgi apparatus
Membrane-bound sphere. Digests materials.
Rodlike structure containing the protein actin. Gives structural support and assists in cell movement.
Hollow, cylindrical structure. Assists in movement of cilia, flagella, and chromosomes; transport system.
Cloud of cytoplasmic material that contains centrioles. Dense site in the cytoplasm that gives rise to large numbers of microtubules with different functions in the cytoskeleton.
Microtubule-organizing center
Organelle with double, folded membranes. Converts energy into a form the cell can use.
Rounded mass within nucleus; contains RNA and protein. Preassembly point for ribosomes.
Spherical structure surrounded by a nuclear envelope; contains nucleolus and DNA. Contains DNA that controls cell's genetic program and metabolic activities.
The outer bilayered boundary of the cell; composed of protein, cholesterol and phospholipid. Protection; regulation of material movement; cell-to-cell recognition.
Plasma membrane
Contains RNA and protein; some are free, and some attach to ER. Site of protein synthesis.
Membrane-surrounded, often large, sac in the cytoplasm. Storage site of food and other compounds; also pumps water out of a cell.
Cytoplasmic ribonucleoproteins shaped like octagonal barrels. Dock at nuclear pores, pick up molecules synthesized in the nucleus, and deliver their load to various places within the cell
Small, membrane-surrounded sac; contains enzymes or secretory products. Site of intracellular digestion, storage or transport.
____________ _________ are a chemically heterogenous group of protein fibers,…These filaments help to maintain cell shape and the spatial organization of organelles, as well as promote mechanical activities with the cytoplasm.
Intermediate filaments
The nucleoplasm is the inner mass of the nucleus. In a nondividing cell, it contains genetic material called _________.
_________ consists of a combination of DNA and protein and is the uncoiled, tangled mass of ___________ ("colored bodies") containing the hereditary information in segments of DNA called genes.
Chromatin; chromosomes
Animals exhibit five major levels of organization. List them.
1. Protoplasmic organization; 2. Cellular organization; 3. Tissue level; 4. Organ level; 5. System level.
A ______ (Fr. tissu, woven) is a group of similar cells specialized for the performance of a common function.
Animal tissues are classifies as __________, __________, ______, or _______.
epithelial, connective, muscle, or nervous
__________ tissue exists in many structural forms. In general, it either covers or lines something and typically consists of renewable sheets of cells that have surface specializations adapted for their specific roles.
List the functions of epithelial tissue.
1. Absorb, the lining of the small intestine; 2. Transport, kidney tubules; 3. Excrete, sweat glands; 4. Protect, the skin; 5. Contain nerve cells for sensory reception, the taste buds in the tongue.
__________ can be simple, consisting of only one layer of cells, or __________, consisting of two or more stacked layers.
Epithelium; stratified
Individual epithelial cells can be flat (________), cube shaped (________), or columnlike (________).
squamous; cuboidal; columnar
__________ tissues support and bind.
In _____ _________ ______ strong, flexible fibers of the protein collagen are interwoven with fine, elastic, and reticular fibers, giving it an elastic consistency and making it an excellent binding tissue ( e.g., binding the skin to underlying muscle tissue).
loose connective tissue
In _______ _________ ______, the collagen fibers are densely packed and may lie parallel to one another, creating very strong cords, such as tendons (which connect muscles to bones or to other muscles) and ligaments (which connect bones to bones).
fibrous connective tissue
_______ ______ is a type of loose connective tissue that consists of large cells that store lipids. Most often, the cells accumulate in large numbers to form what is commonly called fat.
Adipose tissue
_________ is a hard yet flexible tissue that supports such structures as the outer ear and forms the entire skeleton of such animals as sharks and rays.
Cells called ____________ lie within spaces called lacunae that are surrounded by a rubbery matrix that chondroblasts secrete.
_____ _________ ______ contains numerous fibroblasts that produce collagenous and elastic fibers. Location: Widely distributed under the epithelia of the human body. Function: Wraps and cushions organs.
Loose connective tissue
_______ _________ ______ consists largely of tightly packed collagenous fibers. Location: Dermis of the skin, submucosa of the digestive tract, and fibrous capsules of organs and joints. Function: Provides structural strength.
Fibrous connective tissue
_______ _________ cells are located in lacunae surrounded by intercellular material containing fine collagenous fibers. Location: forms embryonic skeleton; covers ends of long bones; and forms cartilage of nose, trachea, and larynx. Function: Support and reinforcement.
Hyaline cartilage
_______ _________ contains fine collagenous fibers and many elastic fibers in its intercellular material. Location: External ear, epiglottis. Function: Maintains a structure's shape while allowing great flexibility.
Elastic cartilage
______________ contains many large, collagenous fibers in its intercellular material. Location: Intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, and disks of knee joint. Function: Absorbs compression shock.
_______ _________ contains fine collagenous fibers and many elastic fibers in its intercellular material. Location: External ear, epiglottis. Function: Maintains a structure's shape while allowing great flexibility.
Elastic cartilage
______________ contains many large, collagenous fibers in its intercellular material. Location: Intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, and disks of knee joint. Function: Absorbs compression shock.
____ (osseous) tissue. ____ matrix is deposited in concentric layers around osteonic canals. Function: Supports, protects, provides lever system for muscles to act on, stores, calcium and fat, and forms blood cells.
Bone; bone
_____ is a connective tissue in which a fluid called plasma suspends specialized red and white _____ cells plus platelets.
Blood; blood
_______ tissue is composed of several different types of cells: Impulse-conducting cells are called _______; cells involved with protection, support, and nourishment are called _________; and cells that form sheaths and help protect, nourish, and maintain cells of the peripheral nervous system are called peripheral _____ cells.
Nervous; neurons; neuroglia; glial
________ ______ ______ is composed of striated muscle fibers (cells) that are long and cylindrical and contain many peripheral nuclei. Function: Voluntary movement, locomotion.
Skeletal muscle tissue
______ ______ ______ is formed of spindle-shaped cells, each containing a single centrally located nucleus; not striated. Location: Mostly in the walls of hollow organs. Function: Moves substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby) along internal passageways; involuntary control.
Smooth muscle tissue
_______ ______ ______ consists of branched striated cells, each containing a single nucleus and specialized cell junctions called intercalated disks that allow ions to move quickly from cell to cell.
Cardiac muscle tissue
______ are the functional units of an animal's body that are made up of more than one type of tissue.
An _____ ______ is an association of organs that together performs an overall function.
organ system
Skin, hair, nails. Protection, thermoregulation.
Integumentary system
Brain, spinal cord, nerves. Regulation of other body systems.
Nervous system
Hormone-secreting glands, such as the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenals. Secretion of regulatory molecules called hormones.
Endocrine system
Bones, cartilages. Movement and support.
Skeletal system
Skeletal muscles. Movements of the skeleton.
Muscular system
Heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels. Movement of blood and lymph.
Circulatory system
Bone marrow, lymphoid organs. Defense of the body against invading pathogens.
Immune system
Lungs, airways. Gas exchange.
Respiratory system
Kidneys, ureters, urethra. Regulation of blood volume and composition.
Urinary system
Mouth, stomach, intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas. Breakdown of food into molecules that enter the body.
Digestive system
Gonads, external genitalia, associated glands and ducts. Continuation of the human species.
Reproductive system