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62 Cards in this Set

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Macroevolution
Large-scale, long-time changes in population/species
Can result in speciation, or the formation of new species
Microevolution
Smaller-scale changes within a population
Usually occurs over short time frame
Non-random mating
AKA sexual selection, for characteristics like a specific desirable mating behavior
Mutation
changes in the DNA code
Gene flow
Individuals may move into or out of the population, taking out (or bringing in) with them their alleles.
Genetic drift
Change in allele frequencies due to random chance. Ex: spiders crossing the highway, some hit, some not.
Darwin on Natural Selection
Individuals will compete among themselves to obtain needed resources.
Individuals which inherit better traits will compete better (that is, survive or reproduce better).
Over time, better traits will increase in frequency in the population, worse traits will decrease in frequency.
Discovered natural selection concurrently
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
Fitness
relative success of a trait compared to other traits for being passed on to offspring
Stabilizing selection
Selection for the median
- SLEEKITBEASTIES!
Directional selection
A particular extreme is selected instead of median or both extremes
Disruptive selection
Selection for extremes and NOT the medium
Speciation
Allopatric - physical barrier divides and leads to 1 pop become 2 spp.
Sympatric - no physical barrier involved in a pop becoming 2 spp.
Reproductive isolation
a new species has arisen when the two groups can no longer interbreed
Evolution of wings
- two genes, ap & pdm, control development, size of epipod, larval gills of aquatic insects, and wings
- ap & pdm ONLY present in wing/gills/epipods and controls size - select for larger size, winglike surface could emerge
Taxonomic Hierarchy
Developed in mid-1700’s by Karl von Linné(a.k.a. CarolusLinnaeus) who then used similarities to group living things
binomial nomenclature
2-name system for naming things.
1st = Genus and is capitalized
2nd = species and isn't capitalized
Both written in italics
8 levels of Linnaen classification scheme
Domains, Kingdoms, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
The 3 Domains
- Bacteria- prokaryotic organisms
- Archaea- unicellular prokaryotes in extreme environments
- Eukarya- eukaryotic organism
The 6 Kingdoms
Archaebacteria (D. Archaea)
Eubacteria (D. Bacteria)
Protista (D. Eukarya)
Animalia
Fungi
Plantae
typological species definition
Separate species based on differences in appearance
biological species definition
Separate species based on ability to interbreed
evolutionary species definition
Separate species based on differences in evolutionary history
homology c analogy
Homologues derive from a common ancestor; analogues do not derive from a common ancestor. Ex: insect v bird wings
Differences between monophyletic, polyphyletic, and paraphyletic
Monophyletic - an ancestor & all descendants
Poly- ancestor & some descendants
Para- no common near ancestor
Protozoan Characteristics
- unicellular
- eukaryotic
- generally heterotrophic
- likely ultimate ancestor to bacteria & animals
Protozoa body parts
- most major organelles
- pellicle
- vacuoles
- cytopharynx
- ectoplasm/endoplasm
Protozoan reproduction methods
- Binary Fission- 2 equal-sized cells result; similar to mitosis
-Budding- 2 cells result; one much smaller than other
-Schizogony- Many cells form after division of mother cell
-Sexual Reproduction
Super Group Excavata
Most possess a FEEDING GROOVE
- Most have 1 or more flagella, used for feeding & movement
- Many have strongly modified
mitochondria (Often sm & incapable of
generating energy (ATP) using oxygen
-Includes free-living and parasitic species
Super Group Amoebozoa
- Move, capture food by means of pseudopodia, which are extensions of cytoplasm
-Pseudopodia may be thick (lobopodia) or thin (filopodia)
 May be “naked” or may possess a shell, or test
-Test can be made of CaCO3, silica, chitin, or protein
-Mostly particle feeders, but some pathogenic
to humans, other animals
-Often form resting stages, or cysts
Super Group Rhizaria
-Main “body” is amoeboid
-Nearly all covered by a test
-Generally form only filopodia
Super Group Chromalveolata
Contains mostly plant-like protists
United by origin of the plastid, through secondary endosymbiosiswith an archaeplastidancestor
-Archaeplastids are a group of plant-like protists (ex: green algae)
-Most common plastid is the chloroplast except in animal-like chromalveolates
- Often possess stacks of flattened vesicles called alveoli
Conjugation in Protista
Two individuals randomly merge and use meiosis to swap haploid micronuclei, 3 pronuclei & macronucleus disintegrat, remaining merge to eventually become a new macronucleus for each. 2 in, 2 out.
Kingdom Animalia
-1st appears in late PreCambrian, Cambrian Explosion
- all multicellular & heterotrophic organisms
- choanoflagellates likely Animalia ancestor
Hypotheses of Origin of Multicellular Life
1- colonial hypothesis - colony had cells that specialized
2- syncytial hypothesis - multinucleic (syncytic cell) developed internal partitioning membranes w a nucleus in ea partition
Key Characterisitics of Porifera
-NO organization into tissues, organs
-internal skeleton of spicules
- sessile as adults
- body has chamber (spongocoel) thru which water filters
-assymmetric OR radially symmetric
Major Porifera Cell Types
-Pinacocytes
-Porocytes
-Mesenchyme cells (a.k.a. amoebocytes)
-Choanocytes (a.k.a. collar cells)
Pinacocytes
thin cells which line the outer surface of sponges
Porocytes
-Pinocytes specialized for regulating water flow in sponges through swelling up and not
-Torus shaped
Mesenchyme cells
AKA Amoeboid Cells
move through a sponge's middle layer of goo, the MESOHYL, and transport food, secrete spicules, and are involved in reproduction (egg)
Choanocyte cells
AKA Collar cells
- line the interior of the sponge
- create water flow through sponge with cilia around "collar"; capture food
Body Parts of Porifera
Spongocoel - central chamber(s)
Ostia/Dermal Pores - entry pts
Osculum - opening from spongocoel
Canals (in branched sponges)
-Spicules - bits that form skeleton
Body forms of Porifera
-Ascon (simplest, vaselike)
-Sycon
-Leukon (most complex/branched)
Asexual reproduction in Porifera
Budding
Formation of GEMMULES (blobs of amoeboid cells in dry-and cold-resistant covering that burst in right conditions)
-Regeneration from severed pieces
Sexual reproduction in Porifera
- Usually outside the body where mobile larvae form
- Monoecious but not usually self-fertilizing, by various avoidances
- Sperm: modified choanocytes
Diploblastic (Porifera)
Body of two cell layers, the endoderm and the ectoderm, separated by a goo layer, the mesoglea
radial symmetry
many planes cut mirror-imaged half along a central line
- Symmetry is important development
Key characteristics of Cnidaria
-Radial symmetry
-Diploblastic
-Possess a gastrovasular cavity, with 1 opening
-All possess cnidocytes, used in defense, prey capture. Some cnidocytes contain nematocysts, barbed w paralytic toxins
cnidocyte
-specialized cell for defense and food capture in Cnidaria.
-subtype is nematocyst, barbed and w paralytic toxins.
Polyp v Medusa stages in Cnidaria
Polyp - case shaped, generally sessile, asexual
Medusa - upside down bowl-shaped, mobile
Alternation of generations
Reproductive cycle for Cnidarians. Generations alternate between polyps that reproduce asexually to make medusa, who reproduce sexually to form mobile ciliated PLANULA, which become polyps.
Cnidarian movement
Polyps - slowly, by gliding, somersaulting, turning upside down & tentacle walking
Medusa - contracting (vertical) wind/water current (horizontal)
Reproduction in Cnidaria
Budding of polyp - asexual, usually forms medusa
Medusa are dioecious, repro sexually by releasing gametes that fuse outside the body
Characteristics of Cnidarian Class Hydrozoa
- only Class w some freshwater
- "hydroids" from "hydra"
- polyp and medusa stages present
- mesoglea mostly acellular
Characteristics of Cnidarian Class Scyphozoa
-"scyph-" = "cup"
- "true" jellyfish
- medusa dominant state, tho both present
- mesoglea has amoeboid cells
- several display negative phototaxis (ascend @ night, descend in day)
Characteristics of Cnidarian Class Anthozoa
-sea anemones & corals
- largest # id's sp of Cnidarian Classes
- medusa stage absent, all attached polyps
Characteristics of Cnidarian Class Staurozoa
-marine, usually deep/cold water
- combo of polyp/medusa
- somersaults to move
Characteristics of Cnidarian Class Cubozoa
- cuboid jellyfish appearance
- light-sensing organs
- nematocyte toxin VERY potent, dangerous for humans
Sea anemone characteristics
-colorful
- may have symbiotic relationship with cleaner fish, crustaceans
- pharnyx to gastrovascular cavity
- MESENTERIES (membranes) bear gonads, cnidocytes, make the interior biradially symmetrical
- carnivore of fish, invertebrates
-reproduce by fission or pedal laceration
Coral characteristics
- colonial
- at threat, polyps withdraw into skeleton(s)
- cuplike CaCOs skeletons made with help of zooxanthellae, an algae that lives in the epidermis/gastrodermis of corals
-
Zooxanthellae
an algae that lives in the epidermis/gastrodermis of corals that live in reach of undersea sunlight. Produce CaCO3, carbon that corals use to live, grow skeletons. Bleaching is result of loss of them and will kill the coral.
Characteristics of Phylum Ctenophora
-marine
-few species
-"comb jellies" so called because of 8 ciliated "combs" used for motion. Might/not have tentacles.
- torus shaped but with an anal opening and branched GV canals/chamber
- nerve net, statocysts detect tilting
- possibly triploblastic
- many bioluminesce