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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System composed of _________ and ________
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System composed of _________
all structures lying outside of CNS
A structural and functional unit of NS; capable of conducting nervous impulses
Conduct sensory info from a peripheral body part to the CNS for intepretation
Sensory Neurons
Conduct info within the CNS
Conduct motor info from the CNS to a peripheral body part
Motor neurons
Reception of stimulus; short, multiple processes
Location of nucleus and most organelles
Cell body
Conducts action potential away from cell body; single long process; branching only at terminal end
Axon insulated by a wrapping of myelin formed by Schwann Cells in the PNS and obligodendrocytes in CNS; conduct impulses a faster rate
Bundles of Axons bound together
Composed of axons of sensory neurons
sensory nerves
composed of axons of motor neurons
motor nerves
composed of axons of both sensory and motor neurons
mixed nerves
A rapidly moving change in electrical membrane potential of an axon
Action Potential or nerve impulse
has an all or none effect
Action Potential
Differ in charge distribution across the plasma membrane
Resting Membrane Potential
Negative with respect to the Extracellular fluid outside due primarily to large protins carrying negative charges; resting potential is usually 70 Millivolts with the inside of the membrane negative to the outside
Inside Axon
Positive with respect to the inside
Outside Axon
Rapid, brief reversal of the RMP; Na+ gates open and NA+ rush into cytoplasm of Axon; Interior now slightly + with respect to the exterior
Reestablishment of the RMP; K+ gates open and K+ rush out of the axon
Na+/K+ pump moves Na+ out of axon and K+ back inside
Reestabliment of RMP
Region where an Action Potential passes b/w neurons (typically b/w and axon and a dendrite?
Neurons are seperated by a space called the ____________
Synaptic Cleft
Neurons conducting impulses to the cleft:
Presynaptic Neurons
Neurotransmitters within presynaptic cleft
Neurons conducting impulses away from the cleft:
postsynaptic neurons
1. conducts impulses from all levels to brain.
2. center for spinal reflexes
3. reflex
Spinal Cord
An automatic involuntary response to a stimulus
Function: motor area controls voluntary muscle movements: sensory cortex is center of conscious perception of touch, pressure, vibration, pain, temerature and taste; association areas integrae and process sensory data
Part of limbic system: integrates sensory info arriving at Thalamus, projects to cerebral frontal lobes
Controls autonomic fuctions; sets appetitive drives(thirst, hunger, sexual desire) and reproductive behavior; participates i emotional responses; secretes ADH, and hormones for anterior pituitary regulation
Involuntary coordination and control of outgoing movements for equilibrium, muscle tone, posture
Links cerebellum with other brain centers and with medulla and spinal cord; modifies ouput of repiratory centers in medulla
Regulats heart rate and force of contraction; vasomotor control; sets rate of repiration; relays info the cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata
Conducts sensory messages from PNS to CNS for interprataion
Sensory (Affarent) Division
Conducts motor messages from CNS to Skeletal muscle (voluntary musle)
Somatic Nervous System
Conducts Motor messages from CNS to cardiac and smooth muscle (involuntary muscle) and internal organs/glands.
Autonomic Nervous System
2 types of Motor (efferent) division
Somatic NS and Autonomic NS
2 types of Autonomic NS
Parasympathetic NS; Sympathetic NS
Regulates activites during nonstressful periods.Constricts pupil, promotes digestion, decrease heartbeat heartbeat rate, decrease ventilation rate
Parasympathetic NS
Fight or Flight response; predominates during stressful periods: dilates bronchioles and pupil of eye, increase heartbeat rate, increase ventilation rate, increase blood flow to skeletal muscle, inhibits digestion
Sympathetic NS
Different in ion distributin inside and outside of neuron. Higher concentration of Na outside of axon. Higher Concentration of K inside axon
Ion distribution