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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The flow of air?
1.air enters through the nose
2.air travels through the nasal chambers
3.then air enters pharynx
4.trachea
5.bronchi
6.bromnchioles
7.alveoli
lungs are housed in the?
The thorasic cavity
Negative pressure breathing?
diaphram contracts-causing the throasic cavity to enlarge and air is drwn into the lungs.
Hemoglobin(what gives blood its red color)
Respirtory pigment found in all vertebrates and many invertebrates
(irion in the hemoglobin)
what happens to air in the lungs
oxygen diffuses into the plasma(high levels of oxygen hemoglobin loads up)
What happens in the tissues
oxygen is used in cell respiration(oxygen diffuses into tissues)plasma level drops and hemoglobin unloads
What organ monitors co2 levels in the body?
The BRAIN
Diffusion of co2 into the plasma causes what changes?
The ph is changed in which cause the hemoglobin to dump more o2( Bohr Effect)
define cutaneous respiration?
Gases diffuse across body surface
Gilss
-counter current orientation allows for o2 tranfer
Define Counter current orientation?
Where blood and water flow in opposite directions(very efficient for transfer of gases)
Lungs
-gases is pumped in and out
-good for terrestrial enviroments when 02 demnads are high
(positive pressure Frogs)
Positive pressure is?
The more sub units in the lungs the -----the surface area is for diffusion)
a breathing syestem where 02 is forced in the lungs
-higher
Many Arthropods have a trachea syestem to?
Deliver oxygen directly to cells
define circulatory syestem?
blood travels throughout the body, delivery o2 and nutrients
-collects nitrogenous waste and carbon dixoide
Open syestem

Colsed syestem
-Insects hemolymph

-blodd is always inside a vessel
Vertebrate circulatory syestem
hearts?
Veins?
arteries?
capillaries?
-Heart is used to pump blood
-Veins carry blodd backk to the heart
-Arteries take oxygen riched blood leaving the heart and branch into smaller arterioles
-capillaries small vessels ,close to all cells(can be closed off with smooth muscle
which are thicker arteries or veins?
Arteries are thicker because they are exposed to higher blood pressure.
what is true about veins.
-they are under low blood pressure,
-blood in veins are driven back to the heart by one way valves and muscle
The artrium?
The chamber of the heart that collects blood returning into tthe heart
Ventricle (Force)
-takes blood from atrium and forcfuly contrcts sending blood throughout the body.
fish have a ----chambered heart?Some characteristics of the syestem?
2
-heart-gills-body -heart
Amphibians and reptile have a -----chambered herat?
3
-herat-lungs-heart-body-heart
(pulmonary circuit) (Syestamatic syestem)
Frogs right atrium recieves blood from the body in -------
low 02 and high 02
left artium recieves blood from ------
lungs high 02 and low 02
birds and mamals have -- chambers in the herat?
4
-there isa no mixing of oxgenated blood and deoxgenated blood
AV valves are found where in the heart/
-inbetween the artium and the ventricle
Semilunar valves are found where ?
between the ventricle and the arteries
Systemic circuit?
-blood flow from left ventricle to the aorta
-vessels come off the aortic arch and supply the head and forelimbs blood
-blood flows through vessels into smaller capillary beds were 02 is released and c02 is absorbed
-blood into large vessels (venules and veins)and flow into the VENA CAVE back to the heart (RIGHT ATRIUM)
What organ monitors co2 levels in the body?
The BRAIN
Diffusion of co2 into the plasma causes what changes?
The ph is changed in which cause the hemoglobin to dump more o2( Bohr Effect)
define cutaneous respiration?
Gases diffuse across body surface
Gilss
-counter current orientation allows for o2 tranfer
Define Counter current orientation?
Where blood and water flow in opposite directions(very efficient for transfer of gases)
Lungs
-gases is pumped in and out
-good for terrestrial enviroments when 02 demnads are high
(positive pressure Frogs)
Positive pressure is?
The more sub units in the lungs the -----the surface area is for diffusion)
a breathing syestem where 02 is forced in the lungs
-higher
Many Arthropods have a trachea syestem to?
Deliver oxygen directly to cells
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
Blood flows in what direction from what part into what ?
Blood flow from left ventricle into the aorta
(vessels coming of aortic arch supply blood to forelimbs and brain
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
main idea is?
Blood travels through capilarry beds were C02 is ABSORBED and O2 is RELEASED
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT flows into -----
-veins and larger venules and flows into the VENA CAVE back to the RT ATRIUM
Pulmonary CIRCUIT?
blood flows from?
-The right Ventricle into Pulmonary Arteries.
-Blood flows into capilarry beds and ABSORBS O2 and Realeases CO2
-Oxygenated blood flows in PULMONARY vein that lead back to the left ATRIUM
BLOOD
Three main components of blood ?
1Plasma-water/proteins elctrolytes,glucose annd dissolved gases.

2.cells, ERYTHROCYTES red blood cells containing iron riched blood hemoglobin they have no nucleus some nucleated RBC's
-Leukocytes white blood cells phagocytize dead and invading cells.
3cell fragments -plateletes and throbocytes (piched off white blood cells uses is clotting
-find damaged cells and activate Thrombin
Thrombin chages what/
fibrinogen into fibrin which net captures blood cells and forms a clot
Lymphatic syestem?
what type of syestem
a syestem of blind end tubes that empty blood back into veins in the neck
-lymphatic syestem is returning any fluid that leaked out of circulatory syestem
Lymphatic syestem other roles?
Lacteals are associated with what?
-Immunity white blood cells lymphoclytes are produced in lymph nodes and macrophages protect the body from infection
--digestion lacteals absorb fats in the intestine
NERVOUS SYESTEM
Neuron
glial cells
sensory neuron
receptors
-transmits electrical impulses
-epithelial support cells of neurons
-sensory neuron recieve a signal the from sensory receptor and send in to the brain
-receptors(cones rods pressure receptors)reat to enviroment and stimultae sensory neurons.
cell to cell interaction is what type of reaction?
-chemical
Sensory neurons
Interneurons
Motor neurons
send impulse from sensory receptor toward the brain
-transmit the signal from one sensory neuron to the next
-motor neurons transmit a signal to a gland or muscle fiber
A signals path
Receptor
Sensory Neuron
interneurons
-Motor neuron(gland muslcle Fiber)
-
The name of a signal that travels along neurons as an electrical impulse is ---
the interaction between cells is called a ----
-a Action Potential
-neurotransmitter
Resting Potential is when?
The membrane is permable to what ?
The enzymes of the membrane of the neuron created a differnce of ions concentration of in and outside the cell
-Permeable to K but not NA and cl
Sodium Potassium Pump uses what to diffuse na inside the cell and K outside they cell
-ATP
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
Blood flows in what direction from what part into what ?
Blood flow from left ventricle into the aorta
(vessels coming of aortic arch supply blood to forelimbs and brain
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
main idea is?
Blood travels through capilarry beds were C02 is ABSORBED and O2 is RELEASED
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT flows into -----
-veins and larger venules and flows into the VENA CAVE back to the RT ATRIUM
Pulmonary CIRCUIT?
blood flows from?
-The right Ventricle into Pulmonary Arteries.
-Blood flows into capilarry beds and ABSORBS O2 and Realeases CO2
-Oxygenated blood flows in PULMONARY vein that lead back to the left ATRIUM
BLOOD
Three main components of blood ?
1Plasma-water/proteins elctrolytes,glucose annd dissolved gases.

2.cells, ERYTHROCYTES red blood cells containing iron riched blood hemoglobin they have no nucleus some nucleated RBC's
-Leukocytes white blood cells phagocytize dead and invading cells.
3cell fragments -plateletes and throbocytes (piched off white blood cells uses is clotting
-find damaged cells and activate Thrombin
Thrombin chages what/
fibrinogen into fibrin which net captures blood cells and forms a clot
Lymphatic syestem?
what type of syestem
a syestem of blind end tubes that empty blood back into veins in the neck
-lymphatic syestem is returning any fluid that leaked out of circulatory syestem
Lymphatic syestem other roles?
Lacteals are associated with what?
-Immunity white blood cells lymphoclytes are produced in lymph nodes and macrophages protect the body from infection
--digestion lacteals absorb fats in the intestine
NERVOUS SYESTEM
Neuron
glial cells
sensory neuron
receptors
-transmits electrical impulses
-epithelial support cells of neurons
-sensory neuron recieve a signal the from sensory receptor and send in to the brain
-receptors(cones rods pressure receptors)reat to enviroment and stimultae sensory neurons.
cell to cell interaction is what type of reaction?
-chemical
Sensory neurons
Interneurons
Motor neurons
send impulse from sensory receptor toward the brain
-transmit the signal from one sensory neuron to the next
-motor neurons transmit a signal to a gland or muscle fiber
A signals path
Receptor
Sensory Neuron
interneurons
-Motor neuron(gland muslcle Fiber)
-
The name of a signal that travels along neurons as an electrical impulse is ---
the interaction between cells is called a ----
-a Action Potential
-neurotransmitter
Resting Potential is when?
The membrane is permable to what ?
The enzymes of the membrane of the neuron created a differnce of ions concentration of in and outside the cell
-Permeable to K but not NA and cl
Sodium Potassium Pump uses what to diffuse na inside the cell and K outside they cell
-ATP
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
Blood flows in what direction from what part into what ?
Blood flow from left ventricle into the aorta
(vessels coming of aortic arch supply blood to forelimbs and brain
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
main idea is?
Blood travels through capilarry beds were C02 is ABSORBED and O2 is RELEASED
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT flows into -----
-veins and larger venules and flows into the VENA CAVE back to the RT ATRIUM
Pulmonary CIRCUIT?
blood flows from?
-The right Ventricle into Pulmonary Arteries.
-Blood flows into capilarry beds and ABSORBS O2 and Realeases CO2
-Oxygenated blood flows in PULMONARY vein that lead back to the left ATRIUM
BLOOD
Three main components of blood ?
1Plasma-water/proteins elctrolytes,glucose annd dissolved gases.

2.cells, ERYTHROCYTES red blood cells containing iron riched blood hemoglobin they have no nucleus some nucleated RBC's
-Leukocytes white blood cells phagocytize dead and invading cells.
3cell fragments -plateletes and throbocytes (piched off white blood cells uses is clotting
-find damaged cells and activate Thrombin
Thrombin chages what/
fibrinogen into fibrin which net captures blood cells and forms a clot
Lymphatic syestem?
what type of syestem
a syestem of blind end tubes that empty blood back into veins in the neck
-lymphatic syestem is returning any fluid that leaked out of circulatory syestem
Lymphatic syestem other roles?
Lacteals are associated with what?
-Immunity white blood cells lymphoclytes are produced in lymph nodes and macrophages protect the body from infection
--digestion lacteals absorb fats in the intestine
NERVOUS SYESTEM
Neuron
glial cells
sensory neuron
receptors
-transmits electrical impulses
-epithelial support cells of neurons
-sensory neuron recieve a signal the from sensory receptor and send in to the brain
-receptors(cones rods pressure receptors)reat to enviroment and stimultae sensory neurons.
cell to cell interaction is what type of reaction?
-chemical
Sensory neurons
Interneurons
Motor neurons
send impulse from sensory receptor toward the brain
-transmit the signal from one sensory neuron to the next
-motor neurons transmit a signal to a gland or muscle fiber
A signals path
Receptor
Sensory Neuron
interneurons
-Motor neuron(gland muslcle Fiber)
-
The name of a signal that travels along neurons as an electrical impulse is ---
the interaction between cells is called a ----
-a Action Potential
-neurotransmitter
Resting Potential is when?
The membrane is permable to what ?
The enzymes of the membrane of the neuron created a differnce of ions concentration of in and outside the cell
-Permeable to K but not NA and cl
Sodium Potassium Pump uses what to diffuse na inside the cell and K outside they use what to do this?
-ATP
Depolariztion?
-when a neuron at rest is stimulated AP is formed
-Sodium channels open sodium in and potassium out (reversed polarity)
-Sodium Potassium pump turns on and restores resting potential.
-The channels open and close toward the neurons axon
Speed of action potential is increased when?
Action potential increases with axon diameter thicker=faster
Schwann cells(myelin sheath)
The gaps between schwamm cells are?
True or false Schwamm cells increase speed of signal?
Schwann cells are cells that are rapped around the axon of a neuron and that insulate membrane from action potential.
-Nodes of Ranvier
True
Why are neurons only one way signal transmitter?
-because dendrites can onley recieve a signal and they have no neurotransmitters
What molecule stimulates the beak down of neurotransmitters?
calcium Ca
Central Nervous syestem?
2 Characteristics
-composed of Brain and spinal cord.
-and processes nervous stimuli and coordinates responses.
Perpheral bervous syestem?
-nervous tissues connecting all parts of the body to the central nervous syestem
The brain? 3 parts
Hindbrain
Midbrain
Forebrain
Hind brain? 3 parts
1.Medulla-base of brain controls heartbeat and respiration (sub concious)
2.Pons area that connects the two sides of the brain
3.cerebellum front of the head controls coordination,posture ,and equilibrium.
Midbrain?
Optic lobes control vission
forebrain?
Thalmus-process of sensory info (homeostatis )
Hypothalmus-emotions and hormones that target the pituitary gland(endocrine syestem)
Left side of the brain?
-controls right side of the body (language,math,logic and resoning
Right side of the brain?
-controls the left side of the body (spatial artistic,musical activities)
Cranial nerves?
fish and amphibians?
mammals, reptiles,birds?
Ganglia bundles of neurons that come directly off the brain
-10 pair
-12 pair
The function of the corpus callosum?
Allows for sharing information between two sides of the brain
Sensory division?
Motor division?
-cells carrying signal toward brain
-cells carrying signals away from the brain
Explain how reflexes work?
interneurons recieve impulse from sensory neuron and is sent back to the nervous cord activating the motor neuron to contract the muscle.
Autonomic nervous syestem?
-nerves of motor division that control unconcious functions
Autononmic is also known as----syestem? controls what?
-fight or flight syestem
-increase heart rate, stops digestion(NOREPINEPHRINE)
Parasympathetic(conserves)
-slows down breathing and increses digestion
What is a stimulus?
-energy from the enviroment(light,heat,chemical,electrical,mechanical)
Job of a receptor potential?
THRESHOLD STIMULI
STRINGER STIMULI
Stimuli changes membrane potential
-weaker stimuli that results in action potential
-fast action with high frequency
Olafactory organs?
what is the process of the action?
-smelling organs more sensative that that of taste can ditect things from far away
-sensors in the nasal cavity have cilia in mucus.molecules bind to mucus and initiate a nerve impulse
mechanoreceptors?
streching of muscles gives brain info about body position
-respond to motion(pressure)Monitor in and external stimuli
A lateral line does what?
-found in fish and detects vibrations
Neuromasts?
at interval that have a copula surrounded by cilia that give info about vibrations.
Balence and orientation?
Utilizes gravity to determine orientation(statolith)
Inner ear?
Saccule and Utricle?
semi circular canals?
-called Labyrinth balence organ orientation and sound detection.
-small chambers lined with hairs for balence
-a fluid filled tubes for balence(perpendicular planes)
Tympanic membrane?
path of hearing?
-Ear drum
-ear drum,
-bones of the inner ear(malleus,incus,stapes,)
-oval window
-vibration in oval window is transfered into the fluid inside the cochlea
-The cochela stimulate the ciliaof the organ of corti sending the impulses to the brain