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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
parental generation; true-breeding strains
offspring of P1; hybrids
offspring of F1
A DNA segment coding for a particular protein, and ultimately, a particular trait
an alternative form of a gene
place on the chromosome (DNA strand) where a particular gene is found
the observable, expressed trait
physical features
the genetic make-up of an organism; the alleles the organism carries
alleles are the same (AA or Aa)
alleles are different (Aa)
if present, this allele will mask the other allele
if present, it will be maksed by the dominant allele (though if two recessive alleles are present, the recessive phenotype will be seen)
All of the chromosomes except the pair of sex chromosomes
Sex chromosomes
the X and Y chromosomes (determines if organism is male-XY or female-XX)
linked vs. unlinked genes
genes both found on the same chromosome vs. genes found on two different chromosomes
one allele completely masks the other
both alleles are expressed, the heterozygous phenotype looks like a blending of the two homozygous phenotypes

e.g. pink snap dragon = result of red and white phenotypes
both alleles are expressed equally; no blending

e.g. AB blood type
What is Mendel's Law of Assortment?
Inheritance of one trait does not affect the probability of inheriting a second trait. This will be true as long as the genes coding for these traits are not on the same chromosome.

i.e. linked and unable to be seperated during crossover
What ia sex-linked gene?
a gene that is found on the X-chromosome but not the Y

i.e. hemophelia
What is a sex-influenced gene?
A gene that is found either on one of the autosomes, or on the portion of the X that has the Y counterpart

male pattern baldness
What is polygenic inheritance?
A trait that is under the influence of more than one gene

often results in a gradient of phenotypes since there can be so many allele combinations

skin color, height
What are reaction norms?
The amount of phenotype variation that is possible when a given genotype is expressed in a given environment.
What are Barr bodies?
Because females recieve 2 X's, one gets shut down in every cell of the body (becomes Barr body) during embryonic development.

Which one gets shut down is random
What is mosaicism?
When a female heterozygous is developing, somce cells inactivate one X chromosome, while other cells inactive the other X chromosome.

Patchy phenotype