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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is gene regulation?
Control of the EXPRESSION of the gene.
In other words, gene regulation determines which particular gene will undergo transcription and translation to make a protein inside a given cell
When does gene regulation occur?
Gene expressions can occur at many different points in the protein-making process
Which points in the protein making process does this happen?
Before transcription
At transcription (most common)
Between transcription and translation
At translation
After translation
Before transciption
transcription can't occur when DNA is tightly packed as heterochromatin
At transcription
Transcription factors block RNA pol from promoter --> no protein


encourage RNA pol to bind --> more protein
Between transcription and translation
alternative splicing
mRNA degradation
antisense RNA

(definitions later)
At translation
Element binds near mRNA start codon and keeps ribosome from attaching to mRNA
After translation
Proteins are ubiquitin-tagged for destruction by proteosome
What is the difference between chromatin and chromosomes
Chromatin = DNA + associated proteins, not condensed into chromosomes for mitosis/meiosis

Chromosomes = DNA macromolecules that are condensed to undergo mitosis & meisosis
What is heterochromatin and what is euchromatin? How are they related to gene regulation?
Heterochromatin = DNA too tightly packed to undergo transcription, so gene can't be expressed in that cell

Euchromatin = DNA less tightly packed, transcription can occur
Alternative splicing
introns from a gene are spliced together in different ways to get a different protein
mRNA degradation
mRNA's poly A tail tends to break off bits at a time. If the tail is short, not as many proteins will be translated from it before the tail is completely broken off
Anitsense RNA
strand of complimentary RNA that binds to mRNA and keeps it from being translated
What are shock proteins? How does gene regulation effect their production?
Chaperones that keep proteins inside cell from unfolding when the temperature is too high
What is ubiquitin?

What is a proteosome?
Ubiquitin is a marker added to proteins in the cell that aren't needed

Proteosome is a "recycling machine" that collects ubiquitin-tagged proteins and breaks them into peptides that can be used to make different proteins