Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/20

Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 checkpoints?
G1 checkpoint
G2 checkpoint
Metaphase checkpoint
G1 checkpoint
Make sure cells have the right size, nutrients, growth factors to go from G1 to G2 in cell cycle
G2 checkpoint
Make sure cells are the right size, have DNA replicated before starting prophase of mitosis
Metaphase checkpoint
Makes sure all chromosomes are attached to microtubules of spindle before anaphase of mitosis begins
What are proto-oncogenes? How do oncogenes differ from them?
Genes coding for proteins to regulate the cell cycle

Oncogenes are mutated proto-oncogenes that encourage the cell to undergo mitosis more rapidly
What are the 4 genetic changes that cause proto-oncogenes to become oncogenes?
Proto-oncogene moved to a new place nexte to a promoter that never turns off. Proteins that enourage mitosis are made constantly --> Cell never stops dividing

Gene amplification: extra copies of proto-oncogene inserted on DNA, make extra proteins encourage mitosis --> increased cell division

Point mutations in promoter region of oncogene make promoter always in "on" mode

Ponit mutation in gene itself makes a "hyperactive" protein that enourages mitosis to happen more often
What do tumor supressors do?
Detect and repair DNA damage or shut down cell division
If mutated: cell checkpoints overidden/cell won't stop dividing
P53
helps cell decide whether to repair damaged DNA or commit cell suicide
BRCA-2
encodes protein that helps repair damaged DNA at G2
Ovarian and breast cancers
What are the two properties of normal cells that are lacking in cancerous cells
Contact inhibition
Anchorage dependence
Contact inhibition
prevent cell division if doing so would cause piling up
Anchorage dependence
requre contact with other cells in order to attach
A tumor can progress through various stages, with additional mutation. What are the 3 stages
Benign
Malignant
Metastasis
Benign
tumor isolated to certain area
Malignant
Spreads to other tissues
Metastasis
Further spread by lymph system
What is chemotherapy?
injection of chemicals into bloodstream to kill rapidly dividing cells (prevent mitosis)
What is radiation therapy?
Use high electron particles to injure/destroy cells by damagingthe DNA; cells can't grow/divide
What are angiogensis inhibitors?
Keeps blood vessels from reaching tumor so its nutrient supply is cut off and abnormal cells can't get travel to other parts of body (metastasize) through blood stream
How migh antisense RNA help treat cancer?
Can bind to mRNA trascribed from an oncogene, so it can't be translated into a protein that encourages rapid mitosis