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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
ecology
the study of the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their abiotic environment
population
a group of organisms of the same species that live together in the same area at the same time
species
don't interbreed
communities
a natural association that consists of all the populations of different species that live and interact together within an area at the same time
ecosystem
a community and its physical environment
order
organisms
population
community
ecosystem
landscape
biosphere
landscape
large land areas that include several ecosystems
thermodynamics
the study of energy and its transformations
first law of thermodynamics
energy can not be created or destroyed, although it can change from one form to another
second law of thermodynamics
when energy is converted from one form to another, some of it is degraded into heat, a less usable form that disperses into the environment
entropy
the measure of the disorder of the energy
producers (autotrophs)
plants
consumers (heterotrophs)
primary consumer (herbivore)=eat producers
secondary consumers
eat primary consumers
tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers (carnivores)
omnivores
eat both plants and animals
detrivores
eat detritus
decomposers
(saprotrophs) decompose shit
trophic level
an organism's position in a food chain, which is determined by its feeing relationships
ecological pyramid
represent the relative energy values of each trophic level
biomass
a quantitative estimate of the total mass of living material
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
the total amount of photosynthetic energy that plants capture and assimiliate in a given period
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
productivity after respiration losses are subtracted. it is the amount of biomass found in excess of that broken down by a plant's cellular respiration. represents the rate at which this organic matter is actually incorporated into plant tissues for growth
NPP
GPP-plant cellular respiration
natural selection
overproduction, variation, limits on population growth (struggle for existence), differential reproductive success
succession
community development over time
Henry Cowles
primary succession
the change in species composistion over time in a previously uninhabited environment
secondary succession
the change in species composition that takes place after some disturbance destroys the existing vegetation, soil is already present
symbiosis
any intimate relationship or association between members of two or more species (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism)
coevolution
the interdependent evolution of two interacting species (symbiosis)
mutualism
both partners benefit
commensalism
a type of symbiosis in which on organism benefits and the other one is neither harmed nor helped
parasitism
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed
ecological niche
the totality of an organism's adaptations, its use of resources, and the lifestyle to which it is fitted
GF Gause
keystone species
a species, often a predator, that exerts a profound influence on a community in excess of that expected by its relative abundance
carbon cycle (ground, sedimentary rock)
the global circulation or carbon from the environment to living organisms and back to the environment
nitrogen
atmosphere
phosphorus
land, ocean, land
sulfur
sedimentary rock, ocean
hydrologic
water
Garret Hardin
personal gain and self interest -->degradation
oxidation
a molecule loses an electron
reduction
a molecule gains an electron
UV rays
AM, TV, FM, micro, IR, UV, x-ray, gamma
food chain levels
producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, decomposers
swamps and marshes
most ecosystem productivity
tolerance limits
min and max levels in which a species cant survive or reproduce
mutations
contribute to genetic diversity
selective pressure
physiological stress due to inappropriate levels of a critical environmental factor
six kingdoms
archebacteria
eubacteria
protists
plants
fungi
animals
taxonomic naming system
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
ecological organization
individual, population, community, ecosystem, landscape
intraspecific competition
competition between same species
interspecific competition
competition between different species
ecotone
edge between two different landscapes, species richness occurs
ecosystem ecology
to understand the flow of evergy and matter through organisms and the environment
photosynthesis
carbon, water, light energy-->sugar, water, oxygen
cellular respiration
glucose, oxygen, water-->carbon dioxide, water, ENERGY