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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In what direction does impulse transmission occur?
From dendrites -> cell body -> axon hillock -> synaptic terminal
What are the three classes of neurons?
Sensory neurons...
receive environmental signals
send to spiral cord/brain
connection between sensory/motor
Carry out appropriate response/react
What is the difference between electrical and chemical communication?
Electrical: the signal travels down an individual neuron

Chemical: how the signal gets passed between neurons
Where do the chemical and electrical communications take place?
Electrical: along the axon

Chemical: at the synaptic cleft
membrane potential
negative charge difference between inside/outside of cell
resting potential
-70 mV
Inside of cell = negative charge at rest
action potential
nerve impulse
all or none response to change in membrane potential
graded potential
cell may be slightly more/less negative
(-65 to -80 mV)
cell membrane becomes more negative (K+ leaves cell via gated channels)
cell membrane becomees more positive (Na+ enters cell via gated channels)
What is involved with membrane potential?
concentration gradient
electrical gradient
Na-K pump
concentration gradient
K+ wants out, Na+ want in
electrical gradient
opposites attract
Na-K pump
active transport working against the concentration gradients (pumps Na+ out & K+ in)
How is the resting potential maintained?
Look at the notes taken during discussion #10 or look at fig. 8.15
What happens when a nerve cell is stimulated?
(5 steps)
step 1 = resting potential

step 2 = depolarization (some Na+ channels open up causing it to become more positive) Once depolarization reaches threshold it releases an active potential

step 3 = rising phase of the action potential (all Na+ gates are opened up while K+ gates remained closed)

step 4 = Falling phase of the action potential (Na+ gates closed and K+ open, causing K+ to leave making it negative again)

step 5 = undershoot/overshoot (K+ channels remain open and becomes more negative than the resting potential)
synaptic cleft
space between pre-/postsynaptic neurons
synaptic vesicles
in presynaptic neruon

contain neruotransmitters
chemical relased by vesicles in presynaptic cell and then binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane
protein ("lock")
opens if correct neurotransmitter
Cl- in = ________
Na+ or K+ in = ________
Most neurons secrete only one ________
________ are capable of receiving many different NT's
postsynaptic neruons
type of NT released influences what the ________ will do
postsynaptic neruon
How do action potentials convey information about different stimuli?
By its frequency
frequency: stronger stimuli produce AP's at a _______ frequency than weaker stimuli
How are signals integrated/processed?
Axon hillock: integrates/process incoming signals

Does it depolarize or hyperpolarize?
excitory post-synaptic potential

depolarizes cell

Does it depolarize or hyperpolarize?
inhibitory post-synaptic potential

hyperpolarize the cell
What is summation?
The build up of several ESPS's or IPSP's
What are the two types of summation?
Temporal = time; how quickly the AP's follow eachother

Spatial = space; 2 or more AP's from different pre-synaptic neurons come in to the post-synaptic neuron at about the same time
CNS stands for...
central nervous system

brain, spinal cord
PNS stands for...
peripheral nervous system

everything else but brain and spinal cord
1) sensory reception = __NS

2) integration = __NS

3) reaction/output = __NS
1) PNS

2) CNS

3) PNS
The peripheral nervous system is divided into several subunits

What are they?

Sensory is
external & internal environment
somatic & autonomic

you have conscious control over your somatic motor system

but not the autonomic (spontaneous)
How does the vertebrate brain develop?
fill in the blanks within the next couple of cards
Thyroid hormone influnces growth of 1)________ within the 2)________ tissue layer
1) microtubules/filaments
2) ectoderm
There is a neural plate with 3)____ nerual folds that arch over/together to form the 4)________. (Which will eventually develop into the 5)________ & 6)________)
3) two
4) nerual tube
5) brain
6) spinal cord
In early development the embryo's brain is mostly 7)________
7) hindbrain
What is reitcular formation?

What does this prevent?
Part of the hindbrain that recieves sensory input and filters out non-important stimuli

Prevents sensory overload
What structures comprise the limbic system?
Where are all of these located?
under and within the cerebral cortex
Based on sensory from the 5 senses, what does it process?
it is the site of what?
site of the emotions