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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a hormone?
Slow acting neurotransmitters from brain/other organs/body cells
What are the 2 major classes of hormones?
Peptides
Steroids
Peptides are...

they are regulated by
H2O-soluble, derived from amino acids

regulated by negative feedback
Steroids are 1)________ soluble and from the 2)________

they are regulated by 3)________
`)fat soluble
2)adrenal cortex, ovaries/testes

3)liver enzymes
Activity rate for ph (peptide hormones) and sh (steroid hormones)
ph - fast

sh - slow
structure?
ph - charged

sh - ring
solubility?
ph - water

sh - lipid/fat
cell membrane?
ph - impermeable

sh - permeable
cascade

ph -
Receptor starts 1)________ the membrane. Binding 2)________ the cascade that activates an 3)________ already present in the cytoplasm

sh -
1)________ the membrane. The receptor is 2)________ the cell and binding turns gene on --> 3)________ then generates product
ph - 1) outside, 2) starts, 3) enzyme

sh - 1) crosses, 2) inside, 3) protein synthesis
Source

ph -
Made from 1)________. Released by: 2)________, 3)________, 4)________

sh -
released by 1)________, 2)________ and 3)________
ph - 1) amino acids, 2) anterior pituitary, 3) para-/thyroid, 4) thymus

sh - 1) adrenal cortex, 2) ovaries, 3) testes
regulation
ph - negative feedback

sh - degraded by LIVER (also a slow process). Also has negative feedback control mechanisms
Examples
ph - insulin, glucagon, oxytocin, ADH, ACTH

sh - androgens, estrogens, progesterone, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids
for each of the following put P for peptide hormone or S for steriod hormone

Includes the sex hormone
S
Derived from amino acids
P
Fast, short term effects
P
slow, long term effects
S
Binds to receptors on the cell surface
P
Affects gene expression/transcription
S
Alters the activity of existing proteins within a cell
P
Ultimately leads to synthesis of new proteins
S
Signal transduction pathway involves second messangers
P
Diffuses across lipid bilayers
S
Hypothalamus...

(produces)
(regulates)
produces: RH = releasing hormone

regulates: Pituitary
Posterior pituitary
produces: ADH = antidiuretic hormone

regulates: Kidneys (collecting duct = H2O absorption)
Anterior pituitary
produces: GH, PRC = prolactin, FSH & LH, TSH, ACTH

regulates: nothing
Adrenal medulla
produces: nor-/epinephrine

regulates: sympathetic NS; short-term stress response
Adrenal cortex
produces: calcitonin

regulates: Ca-levels in the blood
How does the system regulating blood levels work?
Negative feedback
Low glucose levels: pituitary signals pancreas to release ________

High glucose levels: pituitary signals pancreas to release ________
glucagon

insulin
What is the process of stress regulation?
Nerve signal from hypothalamus to adrenal medulla; nor-/epinephrine released
What are the hormones involved with stress regulation?
hypothalamus -> anteriorpituitary -> adrenal cortex

RH -> ACTH -> glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids
What are the two main kinds of hormones regulating expression during embryonic development?
thyroid and sex steroid hormones
What are the five causes of differential gene expression in cells of an embryo?
Look at number 8 in discussion #12
How do proteins turn on/off genes during development (what are the two main steps)?
determination

differentiation
Determination:
________ precursor (stem cell) ________ certain signals from ________; master control gene ________/protein made
1) embryonic, 2) receieves, 3) other cells, 4) activated
Differentiation:
________ activates ________ of genes encoding for other specific transcription ________ (depends on what _________ the cell received/what it will turn into)
1) master protein, 2) transcription, 3) factors, 4) signals
What is apoptosis?
cell death
What happens during apoptosis?

Death signal molecules (________) binds with death signal ________ protein on ________

Which proteins are invovled?
1) peptide hormone, 2) recetpor, 3) cell membrane

ced-3, ced-4 (internal proteins) activated and these proteins create enzymes that will kil/consume that cell
What role do the Apical Ectodermal Ridge and the Zone of Polarizing Activity play in limb development?
AER = tip of lim bud, left/right & dorsal/ventral

ZPA = posterior side of bud attached to body; ant/post
________ produced by the hypothalamus regulates the release of ________ hormones from the anterior pituitary
GNRH

gonadotropic
________ stimulates the seminiferous tubules to increase ________ (sperm production), while LH stimulates ________ (testosterone) production.

Both are produced in the _______
FSH, spermeatogenesis, androgen

anterior pituitary
The process of ________ controls the production of GnRH, LH, and FSH, maintaining constant hormone levels in human males

the hormones that initiate this process are ________
negative feedback

androgens
GnRH produced by the ________ first stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce ________, which promotes ________
hypothalamus
FSH
follicle growth
The growing follicle produces ________, which stimulates growth of the ________, causes a decreasee in ________ and a huge surge in ________ from the pituitary
estrogen
uterine lining
FSH
LH
The release of 1)________ from the pituitary causes 2)________ to occur. The remnants of the follicle turn into the 3)________, which continues to secrete more 4)________ and 5)________ which maintain the uterine lining and cause FSH and LH to 6)________
1) LH
2) ovulation
3) corpus luteum
4) estrogen
5) progesterone
6) decline