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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Both V and Q are greater in ____ regions of the lung
the V/Q ratio is higher in ____ lung
___ lung is more subject to collapse (atelectasis).
Why is there constant stress on the upper lung?
it never fully deflates
Compare the V/Q ratios in upper and lower lung
V/Q is higher in upper lung
pleural scarring secondary to TB is most
commonly seen in the ___ lobe.
Emphysema secondary to environmental exposure is most common in the
____ lobe.
Surgeons are well aware that the dependent lung is more efficient and have
advocated turning patients so the less diseased lung faces which direction?
Why more
aspiration to the right lower lobe?
The right main stem bronchus is more vertical than the left.
There is a dual blood supply to the lung. What arteries?
(pulmonary and bronchial
Only 10% of pulmonary emboli result in infarcts. These tend to be in the
periphery, involve the ____, and are hemorrhagic.
The respiratory system is divided 3 zones:
1. Conducting zone -Zone of air conduction, the site of dead volume.
2. Transition zone -Zone of both air conduction and gas exchange
3. Respiratory zone -Zone of gas exchange.
The lung's lobules are demarcated by what?
where are the terminal bronchioles?
4 types of atelectasis
Resorption: blockage(plug) of bronchial system,
with resultant isolation of lung segments
and subsequent resorption of air and collapse.
Compression: Passive collapse secondary
to accumulated fluid in another area
Contraction: Cicatrization-fibrotic change
hampering expansion and increasing recoil.
Microatelectasis: Nonobstructive, due
to complex events, like loss of surfactant
2 important types of cells in the Conducting Zone
Secretory cells

Ciliated cells
2 important types of cells in the respiratory zone
Alveolar epithelium

Inflammatory cells
Type I and Type II of alveolar epithelium are called what?
Squamous pneumocyte

Granular pneumocvte
-the surfactant
secreting alveolar epithelial cell.
Granular pneumocvte or Tvpe II
Because of extensive surface, Squamous pneumocytes are very susceptible to inhaled
What is the predominant cell type lining alveoli following injury ?
Granular pneumocvte or Tvpe II
-The principal inflammatory cell type is the
_______ found in high numbers in the
alveolar space.
pulmonary macrophage
Tracheobronchial Clearance (Sedimentation) -removes medium-sized particles
(_____ um). The particles settle because of their weight.
•Many aerosol drugs are deposited by _____
Nasal Clearance (Impaction) -removes most large particles (____ um).These
travel in a straight line and impact on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx.
•Diffusion (Brownian movement) -is random movement by small particles
the dominant alveolar cell type is the _____
Humoral immunity of the lung -Local immunity ______.
Inactivation of alpha-1-antitrypsin by oxidants (cigarette smoke
gaseous pollutants) does what in regards to elasticity?
decreases elasticity
In the family of fibrous hydrated silicates which include chrysotile, amosite and
crocidolite, which is most carcinogenic?
What type of exposure to asbestos (drinking water) does not appear to
be a health hazard?

Pleural Effusion --> Pulmonary fibrosis AND Pulmonary plaques -->
Pleural calcification
Asbestos associated pulmonary fibrosis= ______
What exercise equipment does microscopic asbestos resemble?
Most prevalent chronic OLD in the world. The population at risk are stone workers,
sandblasters, etc.
Silica Exposure
Much of the lung damage in the hard coal miners of VA, WV, etc. is probably due to the
________contained in the coal and not the carbon.
silica (silicon dioxide)
The lesion of _____ is that of extensive pulmonary fibrosis and formation of fibrous
nodules containing abundant collagen and silica.
What disease?

acute respiratory reaction when exposed to cotton dust.
Cotton dust respiratory
Disease (Byssinosis)

What disease did Dr. Zaman's father die from?
Byssinosis in the setting of pulmonary edema caused by over treatment with morphine
Byssinosis may be induced by endotoxins coming from the
cell walls of gram-______ bacteria growing on cotten plants.
Concern over the health effects of small airborne particles is the result of
studies that showed excess mortality in urban areas was directly proportional
to the amount of _____in the air.
small particles
controversy over small particle/microparticles involves what factors?
i. There is no clear scientifically acceptable explanation for how small
particles increase mortality rates.
ii. Most environmental measurements have been on particles 10-20 microns
whereas the medically significant particles are smaller than 2.5 microns.
iii. Particles themselves may have no effects. What may be important is the
composition of the particles - e.g. acid content or heavy metal poisons.
Farmer’s lung is caused by what?
Farmer's lung is mediated by what immunological entities
IgG complexes and T lymphocytes
Bagassosis is caused by what?
Actinomyces, sugar cane, hemp
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is the manifestation of what disease?
What is silofiller's lung mechanism?
NO2 heavier than O2

forms nitric acid Toxic gas, NO2 inhalation