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145 Cards in this Set

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The endocrine system is linked to the nervous system through the _______.
hypothalamus
7 endocrine glands
pituitary, adrenals, thyroid, ovaries, testicles, pancreas, and kidneys
2 reasons hormones are administered to animals
to correct a deficiency of that hormone or to obtain a described effect
What are exogenous hormones?
Those that are administered to animals either orally or parenterally
What are endogenous hormones?
Those that are naturally produced
6 types of hormonal therapy
corticosteroids, prostaglandins, progestins, oxytocin, estrogen, and replacement therapy
What are corticosteroids used for in terms of hormonal therapy?
decrease inflammation (from arthritis, itching) and to tx shock
Glucocorticoids used most are ______, many generic
synthetic
Name a popular injectable glucocorticoid
dexamethasone/Azium®
Generic name for Azium®
dexamethasone
Brand name for dexamethasone
Azium®
What synthetic mineralcorticoid is used as replacement therapy for hypoadrenocorticism?
Florinef®
What type of hormonal therapy is primarily used to correct infertility problems in food-producing animals and horses? Sometimes used in small animals.
prostaglandins
What prostaglandin is commonly used in large animal medicine to synchronize reproductive cycles?
Lutalyse®
What group of drugs are similar in effect to progesterone?
progestins
What drugs are used to clinically suppress estrus and to tx false pregnancy and behavioral disorders? They mimic diestrus and prevent estrus.
progestins
Name of progestin used to clinically suppress estrus.
megesterolacetate/Ovaban®
Trade name for megesterolacetate
Ovaban®
Generic name for Ovaban®
megesterolacetate
What hormonal therapy is used to increase uterine contractions during labor, helps expel the placenta and decrease bleeding, and stimulates milk let-down following delivery.
oxytocin
What kind of hormonal therapy are estradiol cypionate/ECP®/Mismate®, diethylstilbestrol/DES, and phenylpropanolamine/Propagest®?
estrogen
What estrogen therapy is used w/i 72 hours of a mismating to induce abortion and prevent pregnancy?
estradiol cypionate/ECP®/Mismate®
Trade name for estradiol cypionate
ECP®/Mismate®
generic name for ECP®/Mismate®
estradiol cypionate
What estrogen therapy is used to tx urinary incontinence in spayed dogs - it increases bladder sphincter tone.
diethylstilbestrol/DES®
Trade name for diethylstilbestrol
DES®
generic name for DES®
diethylstilbestrol
What is an alternative estrogen therapy to DES?
phenylpropanolamine/Propagest
Two most common drugs used for replacement therapy?
insulin for diabetes and thyroxine for thyroid deficiencies
Hypothyroidism is primarily and ____ dog problem.
old dog - hey, I have to make a couple of these easy so I get one right every now and again!
Clinical signs associated w/ ________ usually resolve w/i a short time after the initiation of therapy, but therapy is life long.
hypothyroidism
Three causes of hypothyroidism
iodine deficiency, thyroid gland malfunction, and pituitary gland malfunction
Symetrical alopecia, lethargy, infertility, obesity, heat seeking, and decreased sexual drive are all symptoms of what?
hypothyroidism
How is hypothyroidism diagnosed?
Thyroid panels (T4, free T4, TSH) and TSH stimulation test
What is TSH?
thyroid stimulating hormone
Name four brand names of levothyroxine/T4
Soloxine®, Thyro-Form®, Nutrived T4®, and Synthroid®
Soloxine®, Thyro-Form®, Nutrived®, and Synthroid® are all types of what?
levothyroxine/T4
Tx of ____ is directed at lowering blood levels of T3/T4. Drug therapy to block hormone production can be effective but is not a cure and is considered long term therapy.
hyperthyroidism
Another tx for ____ is removal of the thyroid gland which can be done surgically or through use of radioactive iodine to destroy the gland.
hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism is primarily a dz of old ____.
cats - yeah, another one I got right!
PP/PU, weight loss, hyperactivity, and tachycardia are all symptoms of what?
hyperthyroidism
How is hyperthyroidism diagnosed?
Thyroid panels - T4, free T4, TSH
methimazole/Tapazole® and propylthiouracil are meds used to tx what?
hyperthyroidism
Brand name for methimazole?
Tapazole ®
generic name for Tapazole®
methimazole
Why must an animal remain hospitalized when using radioactive iodine to tx hyperthyroidism?
need to remain until secretions are no longer radioactive
What condition can make kidney problems - the heart is pumping so hard that too much blood is going to the kidneys?
hyperthyroidism
Another name for hyperadrenocorticism?
Cushing's dz
Another name for Cushing's dz?
hyperadrenocorticism
Symetrical alopecia, pot-bellied appearance, thin rice-paper skin and loss of muscle mass, PU, PD, and PP are all signs of what?
hyperadrenocorticism
3 causes of hyperadrenocorticism
pituitary gland tumor, adrenal gland tumor, and iatrogenic
lysodren/Mitotane® and Anipryl® are drug tx for what?
hyperadrenocorticism
Drug therapy for ______ suppresses cortisol production by supressing the adrenal gland.
hyperadrenocorticism
What dz is caused by excessive amounts of cortisol in the body?
hyperadrenocorticism/Cushing's
Is surgical removal of the adrenal tumor a tx for hyperadrenocorticism/Cushing's?
Yes, but it may regenterate
What dz results from inadequate cortisol in the body?
hypoadrenocorticism/Addison's Dz
Another name for Addison's dz?
hypoadrenocorticism
Another name for hypoadrenocorticism?
Addison's Dz
Signs of Addison's/hypoadrenocorticism?
weakness, V/D, lethargy
2 causes of Addison's/hypoadrenocorticism?
inadequate cortisol in the body, autoimmune problem - destruction of adrenal gland
fludrocortisone/Florinef® (mineralcorticoid), and glococorticoid thereapy such ad prednisone, are drugs used to tx what?
hypoadrenocorticism/Addison's
What is a very complex dz resulting from the inability of the beta cells of the pancreas to produce enough insulin or from altered insulin action?
diabetes
Diabetes that results from inadequate insulin production is called _______ or insulin-dependent diabetes. This is the most common type in dogs and cats.
Type 1
Diabetes _________ is the kind where the body produces enough insulin, but the cells are not able to respond to it.
Type II
What is considered the most important anabolic hormone?
Insulin
What is produced by special cells in the pancreas and causes a decrease in blood glucose?
Insulin
In the absence of insulin, the body cannot use _______ as an energy source and must break down its own fat reserves to be converted for energy.
glucose
Action of insulin is related to what three organs?
Brain, liver, and kidneys
What allows glucose uptake and storage in the form of glycogen and fat, and promotes the synthesis of protein, fatty acids and glycogen?
insulin
What inhibits the breakdown of fat, protein, and glycogen into forms that may be used as energy sources?
Insulin
What is the main energy source for the body and the **only** energy source for the brain?
glucose
What is the normal blood glucose level?
70-120 mg/dl
Define renal threshold
Level at which glucose spills over out of kidneys into the urine
What is the result of inadequate insulin production?
cells are starving and tell the liver to convert glycogen to glucose, glucose can't get into the cells to be used for energy, glucose levels become too high, and glucose spills over into the urine because the renal threshold has become too high.
When there is inadequate insulin production in the body, fat tissue is broken down into fatty acids to be used as an energy source. The by-product of this process is _______.
ketones
Lab findings w/ diabetes?
increase blood glucose, glucose in the urine, and ketones in the urine which is more indicative of diabetes than glucose in the urine
Some signs of diabetes?
PU, PD, PP, weight loss
Some predisposing factors for diabetes?
genetic/breed, obesity, hormonal disorders, long term steroid use, destruction of beta cells in the pancreas from recurrent pancreatitis or autoimmune dz
How is diabetes diagnosed?
fasting blood glucose levels drawn, persistent fasting hyperglycemia, ketonuria, glycosuria
Forms of insulin therapy vary according to what three factors?
The chemical the insulin is bound to, the time of peak effect, the duration of action
3 classifications of insulin
rapid acting(regular/semilente), intermediate acting(lente), and long acting(ultralente)
What is rapid acting insulin called?
semilente
What is intermediate acting insulin called?
lente
What is long-acting insulin called?
ultralente
What insulin is used for acute tx?
rapid-acting/semilente
What insulin is used for maintenance in dogs?
intermediate-acting/lente
What insulin is used for maintenance in cats?
long-acting/ultralente
Insulin is dosed by _____, not ml.
units
What forms of insulin are suspensions?
NPH/lente and ultralente
What routes are insulin administered?
IV for stabilization of acute cases, SQ for maintenance
What is the goal of patient regulation in the tx of diabetes?
to provide enough insulin from an outside source to prevent the symptoms of diabetes
Why is spaying recommended for female dogs w/ diabetes?
progesterone affects blood glucose levels
Why is a high fiber diet used in tx of diabetes?
helps maintain constant caloric intake
Hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and cataracts are all complications/conditions related to what?
diabetes
What is hypoglycemia?
blood glucose below 70 mg/dl
What is the cause of hypoglycemia?
overdose of insulin in relation to caloric intake, or to increased stress or exercise
What are some signs of hypoglycemia?
Weakness, lethargy, ataxia, seizures, coma
Tx for hypoglycemia?
If in clinic, IV glucose, or if at home client can rub corn syrup or honey on the gums
What is diabetic ketoacidosis?
High ketones cause a drop in blood pH as a result of diabetes mellitus
Tx of diabetic ketoacidosis?
Goal is a slow return to normal via IV fluids, regular insulin IV, or urinary catheter
How is insulin therapy used in regards to diabetic caused cataracts?
used to prevent progression, will not repair the damage already done
90% of the tx of seizure cases is ________
client education
What seizures are considered an emergency?
prolonged
What is frequently the casue of drug therapy failure in the tx of seizures?
inadequate client compliance
Why is preventive seizure therapy difficult?
it needs to be adjusted to the individual patient
What are involuntary, uncontrolled disturbances of the brain usually manifested by uncontrolled muscular activity called?
seizures
define partial vs. general seizures
partial affects only part of the brain, general affects the whole brain
define stereotypic vs. unprecipitated signs of seizures
stereotypic are similar each time and unprecipitated show no obvious trigger
Signs of seizures
loss/derangement of consciousness, loss of/excess muscle tone or movement, alteration of sensation, changes in the autonomic nervous system, and behavioral changes
What are some behavioral changes that might happen during a seizure?
fly biting, circling, may not recognize owner, may exhibit fear/aggression
What is the cause of seizures?
Multiple causes - many times the cause is not known
What is a general term meaning recurrent seizures, especially if an underlying cause is not identified?
epilepsy
What are some underlying causes to attempt to rule out when diagnosing seizures/epilespy? (8)
Toxicity, acute encephalitis/meningitis, hydrocephalus, brain tumor, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperthermia, acute cranial trauma
Primary epilepsy is often ______ and probably ________.
ideopathic, genetic
4 Stages of an epileptic seizure
Preictal(aura), ictus, post ictal, and interictal period
What is the preictal(aura) stage of an epileptic seizure? Signs?
Unusual behavior before the seizure - may include pacing, licking, salivating, barking and can last minutes to hours
What is the ictus stage of an epileptic seizure? Signs?
The actual seizure - lasts seconds to minutes. Signs - loss of consciousness, collapse, rigidity, paddling, jaw movement, vocalization, salivation, incontinence
What is the post ictal stage of an epileptic seizure? Signs?
Disorientation and fatigue following a seizure. Can include unusual behavior or neurological deficits including temporary blindness.
What is the interical period of an epileptic seizure?
Period between seizures
What is the main concern for the animal during a seizure?
Overheating
What are multiple seizures w/ little or no rest between seizures called? An episode may last 15-30 minutes and it is considered a medical emergency
Status Epilepticus
Sataus epilepticus can be fatal to the animal due to ______ and _______.
hypoxia and hyperthermia
Tx of Status Epilepticus
IV diazepam first, pentobarbitol may be given if diazepam is unsuccessful, control hyperthermia, tx specific cause if known.
Epilepsy control/tx
correct primary cause if known, control seizures w/ anticonvulsants if seizures are long or frequent
What is currently the drug of choice for seizure control?
phenobarbital
How does phenobarbital work in the tx of seizures?
Inhibits the initiation of the seizure
What is an old drug but has new interest for dogs w/ phenobarbital toxicity, refractory cases, and status epilepticus?
bromide
What med used to tx seizures is converted to phenobarbital in the body, is toxic to cats, and has no advantage over pheobarbital other than it is not a controlled drug?
primidone/Mylepsin®
What anticonvulsant is a controlled drug?
phenobarbital, Class IV
What anticonvulsant is toxic to cats?
primidone/Mylepsin®
Brand name for anticonvulsant primidone?
Mylepsin®
generic name for anticonvulsant drug Mylepsin®?
primidone
What drug is used IV to treat status epilepticus abd is not a maintenance anticonvulsant for dogs? It has little ability to prevent seizures
diazepam/Valium®
What is the first choice drug for the control of seizures in cats? Second choice?
1st - phenobarbital/Luminal®/Solfoton®, 2nd - diazepam/Valium®
Trade names for anticonvulsant phenobarbital?
Luminal®, Solfoton®
3 drug contraindications for anticonvulsants? Why?
antihistimines, phenothiazine tranquilizers, and antiemetics - they are all CNS depressants
What med is used in the tx of separation anxiety along w/ behavior modification?
clomipramine/Clomicalm®
Other uses for clomipramine/Clomicalm® besides separation anxiety?
obsessive behaviors, fearful aggression, hyperactivity, hypervocalization, and urine marking
What med is a tricyclic andtidepressant that increases serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the brain?
clomipramine/Clomicalm®
Brand name for clomipramine?
Clomicalm®
Generic name for Clomicalm®
clomipramine
What med is used to tx canine senility and signs of pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism?
selegeline/Anipryl®
What med is an MOA-B inhibitor - it increases dopamine levels in the brain?
selegeline/Anipryl®
Generic name for Anipryl®?
selegeline
What is the brand name for selegiline?
Anipryl®