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80 Cards in this Set

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What is CHF?
Congestive heart Failure - failure of the heart to adequately distribute blood to the tissue, failure to pump blood efficiently
Right side of heart pumps blood where?
to lungs
Left side of the heart pumps blood where?
to the whole body
Signs of CHF?
coughing, fatigue, pulmonary edema, ascities, wt. loss, extremities & abdomen distended
What are 3 supportive lab tests for CHF?
X-rays, ECG, US
4 therapies for CHF?
low salt diets, diuretics, digitalis, vasodilators
What do diuretics do?
cause increased fluid loss through kidneys
How do osmotic diuretics work?
retain water in the renal tubules by osmotic action
2 examples of an osmotic diuretics
mannitol, glucose
What are methyl xanthines?
diuretics (caffeine)
How do methyl xanthine diuretics work?
inhibit Na resorption by the proximal tubule
What are thiazides/Chlorthiazide?®
diuretics
What are thiazides/Chlorthiazide?®
diuretics
Why does CHF cause coughing?
fluid in the lungs
Why does CHF cause fatigue?
not enough oxygen getting around
What is the newest group of diuretics that is very powerful and the one used most?
loop diuretics
What group of diuretics inhibits Na resorption to a lesser degree and that resorption occurs in the Loop of Henle?
Loop diuretics
3 examples of loop diuretics?
furosemide, Disal®, Lasix®
Side effect of loop diuretics?
increased secretion of chloride, potassium, and water
_______ supplements are usually given to animals on long term loop diuretic tx to prevent __________.
potassium, hypokalemia
What is hypokalemia?
low level of potassium in the blood
Cardiac glycosides are also known as what?
digitalis
What do digitalis drugs do?
increase force & efficiency of cardiac contractions
digoxin, digitoxin, Cardoxin®, and Lanoxin® are examples of what?
digitalis drugs
What drugs have a narrow therapeutic range (can be toxic), are made from dried leaves of plants, and come in tablets, injectables, and elixirs?
digitalis
What are 3 effects of digitalis drugs?
Increase force of cardiac contractions, decrease heart rate, increases mechanical efficiency (how it contracts).
What are signs of digitalis toxicity?
anorexia, V/D, depression, increased excitability, skipped heart beats
What are more sensitive to digitalis drugs, cats or dogs?
cats
What two cardiac drugs are IV use only, and are used carefully in-hospital for crises in cardiac output?
dopamine/dobutamine
What do vasodilators do?
Cause general vessel dilation thus allowing blood to flow easier
Generic name for Enacard®?
enalapril
Brand name for enalapril?
Enacard
Brand name for captopril?
Capoten®
Generic name for Capoten?
captopril
What kind of meds are enalapril/Enacard®, captopril/Capoten®, Vasotec®, and hydralazine/Apresoline®
Vasodilators
Name some vasodilators
enalapril/Enacrad®, captopril/Capoten®, Vasotec, hydralazine/Apresoline
How does enalapril/Enacard® work?
It is a vasodilator - reduces the workload on the heart by dilating blood vessels. It also decreases blood pressure.
What drug may slow the progression of heart dz?
enalapril/Enacard®
Route of admin for enalapril/Enacard®?
oral
What vasodilator can worsen kidney dz?
enalapril/Encard®
What vasodilator is a human drug and concurrent use w/ NSAIDs may decrease its effectiveness?
Captopril/Capoten®
General effects of vasodilators?
They dilate arteries and veins - this tends to decrease the cardiac workload(blood flows easier) and increases cardiac output
Side effects of vasodilators?
V/D, hypotension
What type of cardiac med are for arrest/crises, not for long term care?
Cardiac stimulants
Two examples of cardiac stimulants?
epinephrine and isoproterenol
What cardiac stimulant may initiate a heartbeat during CPR?
epinephrine
What med is similar to epinephrine, initiates a heartbeat, & strengthens contractions?
isoproterenol
lidocaine, procainimide, and beta-blockers/propanolol are examples of what type of cardiac med?
antiarrhythmic drugs
What med is used for ventricular arrhythmias, is IV only, and short-acting?
lidocaine
What med is similar to lidocaine but is longer-lasting & can be given by mouth?
procainimide
What med is used to slow tachycardias and control some arrhythmias?
beta-blockers, propanolol
What type of med can slow heart rate, control arrhythmias, and decrease blood pressure?
Calcium channel blockers
verapamil, diltiazem, and Cardizem(human) are examples of what?
calcium channel blockers
When considering a low salt diet as tx for CHF, it is important to remember what?
It is most important to get the patient to eat, so offer it whatever they will eat
When considering therapy for heart dz, it is best to correct ________, but this is not usually possible/
the underlying problem
Sometimes _______ therapy is useful in tx a crisis related to heart disease.
oxygen
How may oxygen be administered when tx a cardiac crisis?
closed cage w/ oxygen pumped in or soft catheters placed up the nostrils
What do expectorants do?
decrease adhesiveness of mucous
What are expectorants indicated for?
**productive** coughs
How do expectorants work?
They have a local effect on MM, thin secretions by making them more watery, and they promote removal of secretions
Route of admin for expectorants?
Primarily oral, but some may be parenteral or inhaled
What kind of meds are glyceryl guaiacolate/Guaifenesin®, acetylcysteine/Mucomyst®, Robitussin - AC®, and Triaminic®?
expectorants
What med is used for equine immobilization w/ an IV drip to maintain anesthesia?
guaifenesin
Brand name of acetylcysteine?
Mucomyst®
Generic name for Mucomyst®
acetylcysteine
What kind of med is acetylcysteine/Mucomyst®?
expectorant
What med has few side effects and is given via nebulization for pulmonary dzs?
acetylcysteine/Mucomyst®
What med is given orally as an antidote for acetaminophen toxicity?
acetylcysteine/Mucomyst®
How does an antitussive work?
Supresses the cough reflex either peripherally (airways) or centrally (decreases cough center in the brain) in the CNS
Do antitussives relieve the cause or symptoms?
symptoms only
What is a reflex initiated by irritation to the upper respiratory tract?
A cough
Do not use antitussives in cases of what?
Pneumonia
Expectorants, bronchodilators, antihistimines, corticosteroids, and CNS cough center depressives can all be used as what?
antitussives
How do corticosteroids work as an antitussive?
decrease inflammation
dextromethrthorphan, codeine/Hycodan®, and burtorphanol/Torbutrol®, are examples of what?
antitussives
What antitussive is a non-addicting morphine derivative?
dextromethorphan
What antitussive is addictive?
codeine/Hycodan®
What antitussive is a preanesthetic for dogs/cats/hoofstock, is a non-addictive synthetic optiate, a controlled substance, and is used for relief of chronic (non-productive) cough in dogs?
butorphanol/Torbutrol®
What drugs improve cardiac contractility, decrease heart rate, decrease signs of dyspnea, and have anti-arrhythmic effects?
digoxins
Brand name for glyceryl guaiacolate?
Guaifenesin®