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109 Cards in this Set

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5 factors that influence the concentration of a drug in the body and the length of time the drug remains in the body
1.Dose & route 2.absorption rate 3. extent of distribution 4.rate of metabolism 5. rate and route of excretion
Amount of drug given to an animal is the _______
dose
Amt of med to be given to an animal as advised by the drug company
recommended dose
What is Therapeutic dose?
dose that gives the desired effect - may not be the same as the recommended dose
What is LD & ED? Goal of these?
Lethal dose and effective dose - goal is to have 1%LD and 99%ED
What is dosage interval?
time interval between doses - how often given - TID, QID, etc
What is absorption?
movement of drug from site of admin to capillaries
Movement of drug across cell membrane is primarily by __________
passive difussion - no expenditure of energy by the cell
4 factors that influence absorption w/ oral admin
1.Food in stomach 2.anatomy of GI tract (i.e. ruminants)3. health of GI tract 4. type of drug
5 factors that influence absorption w/ parenteral admin
1.route 2.amt of absorptive area 3.blood supply to area 4.concentration gradient 5.chemical properties of drug
define distribution
Movement of drug to other body compartments via blood stream
4 factors that influence distribution
1.amt of blood flow to compartment 2.bariers to drug passage into compartment 3.chemical properties of drug 4. chemical properties to body compartment
what is metabolism?
Altering the chemical structure of the drug to render it inactive and prepare it for elimination from the body
6 factors influencing metabolism
1. enzymes present in drug 2.health of liver and/or kidneys 3.age & health of pt 4.body temp (higher temp, higher metabolism) 5.presence of other drugs 6.tissue storage of drug
Cats are very sensitive to certain drugs due to the lack of specific ____ necessary to _______ these drugs
enzymes, metabolize
what is excretion?
Elimination of drug or drug metabolites (broken down parts)from the body
5 routes of excretion
1.urine 2.feces 3.respiratory 4.sweat 5.tears
4 factors that influence excretion
1,kidney function 2.chemical nature of drug 3.renal blood flow 4.duration of action (frequency of doses)
What is an agonist?
A drug that **brings about** a specific action by binding w/ the appropriate receptor
What is an antagonist?
A drug that **inhibits** a specific action by binding w/ a particular receptor
What is efficacy?
the extent to which a drug causes the intended effects in a patient
What is a regimen?
Program for administering a drug - includes dose, frequency, and duration
What is the empirical method of drug therapy?
Calls on the use of practical experience and common sense to make the drug choice
What are some tech responsibilities in carrying out drug orders?
make sure correct drug, administer at correct time and by correct route, carefully observe pt response to drug, ? any med orders that are not clear, accurately create and affix labels to med, explain instructions to client, record appropriate info into med record
What is the high dose given initially to obtain the appropriate blood level?
loading dose
When an injectable drug is placed in a substance that delays its absorption, it may be called a ____ preparation
depot
What is the enzyme added to a drug given SQ to speed its absorption?
hyaluronidase
The onset of action is usually _____ related to the duration of action
inversely
Define drug
chemicals used to dx, tx, cure, or prevent a dz
Define biological
preparation from living organisms or their products
What 7 things are recorded in a pt record when a med is administered?
date, time, drug, amount, route, reaction (if any), and initials
ICe
Intracoelomic - used for reptiles and birds - don't give fluids to birds this way, they'll drown
+/- of IP admin
+ useful for rodents, - can only use non-irritating meds, is painful, and may cause adhesions
5 factors that determine if a med is Rx or OTC
manufacturer's instructions (if complex will be Rx), abuse potential, withdrawl period, bacterial resistance, any potential for serious side effects
Define pharmacokinetics
What body does to drug
Define pharmacotherapeutics
What drug does to body
Forms of internal meds
liquid (suspension, solution), solids (cap,tab, pil), gases, lyophilized (freeze dried), paste, powder
3 ways that drugs can be used in dz process
specific therapy, symptomatic therapy, supportive therapy
Define specific therapy
tx directly the specific cause of dz - cause is known and treatable
Define symptomatic therapy
tx symptoms only - cause not known or treatable
Define supportive therapy
tx not directed at either the cause or specific symptoms of dz but rather at homeostasis - i.e. fluids, oxygen, vitamins, etc.
9 things that must be on a drug label
date, clinic name & address, client & pet name, name of drug, concentration of drug, qty dispensed, instruction for use, DVM name & tech initials, and expiration of drug
Regulations re: drug residues are directed at what three types of residues?
carcinogens, allergens, and resistance inducing
What is the legend on Rx drugs?
Federal law restricts this drug to be used by or by the order of a licensed veterinarian.
6 causes of drug reactions
overdose, improper route of admin, accidental exposure/admin, drug interactions, improper use, side effects
5 things to record in med record when drug is dispensed to a client
date, drug, concentration, qty dispensed, initials
Define pharmacodynamics
study of the action of drugs on living systems
Factors that can affect drug response
species variation, individual variation (wt, age, sex, allergic reactions, temperament, tolerance, pathological conditions, ideopathic conditions)
What is the preferred method if admin of CPR drugs?
IT - intratracheal
+/- of IT admin
+ very fast effect, - need trach tube in place, cannot use w/ NaHCO3
+/- of IU admin
+ local effect, - technically difficult
+/- of IC admin
+ immediate effect, - can damage heart, technically difficult
+/- of opthalmic admin
+ local effect, rapid absorption, - frequent application
+/- of intramammary admin
+ only local effect, easy admin, - withdrawl times (can't use milk)
+/- of inhalation admin
+ good control of dosage, fast elimination of drug, - need special equip, expensive
Use for ID admin
used for allergy and TB testing
+/- of SQ admin
+ easier than IV or IM, less painful, can give larger qtys, - slower effect than IV or IM
+/- of IM admin
+ rapid absorption, longer duration than IV, easier than IV, - can be painful
+/- of IV admin
+ fastest route, rapid effect, can use to give irritating solutions, - technically difficult, more chance of toxic reaction, can only use for certain drugs
+/- of topical admin
+ easy, usually not absorbed systemically, - often licked off, needs frequent application
+/- of oral admin
+ inexpensive, safe, easy, - slow effect, variable absorption depending on food in stomach, can't use in vomitting pt
Define solution
Drug disolved in a solvent, drug does not precipitate out, can go IV
Define suspension
Drug is suspended (not disolved) in a liquid vehicle - drug will settle out as a precipitate
What CANNOT go IV - solution or suspension?
Suspensions
External drug forms
Linaments, lotions, ointments, drops, suppositories, sprays, aerosols, foams
2 reasons DVMs dispense drugs
important source of income, drug store limitations - do not carry many vet meds
2 important differences between human and vet med re: drug dispensing
1.MD uses Rx, DVM usually dispenses from clinic pharmacy 2.Some meds that are OTC for animals are Rx for people
What is compounding of drugs?
Diluting or combining existing meds
3 ways of compounding meds
diluting drugs for vy sm animals or birds, mixing drugs w/ palatable substances, mixing drugs in same syringe to decrease # of injections
What is MUMS?
Minor Use in Minor Species - legislation trying to protect DVMs using meds extra-label
What is FARAD?
Food Animal Residual Avoidant Databank - find out withdrawl times
2 reasons drug residues are found in tissues
dose too high initially, proper withdrawl times not observed
Define drug residue
Traces of drug remaining in animal products (milk/eggs) at market, or in animal tissues at slaughter
2 tx of overdose
1.Remove source - wash skin, remove vapors, etc. 2.Remove drug from body
2 kinds of overdoses
Frank and relative
Define frank overdose
absolute overdose - accidental or math error
Define relative overdose
Problem w/ the pt - individual sensitivity, impaired metabolism/excretion (old pt, organ problems), presence of other drugs
2 examples of schedule V drugs
codeine, lamotil
2 examples of schedule IV drugs
Diazepam, phenobarbitol
4 examples of schedule III drugs
Thiopental, anabolic steroids, ketamine, T-lizol
What has more abuse potential, a schedule I drug or a schedule V?
Schedule I
What was the first major federal legislation concerning drugs and their use - established the FDA
Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act of 1938
4 sources of drugs
Animal, vegetable, mineral, synthetic
6 Rights
Patient, drug, dose, route, time, frequency
Define contraindication
reason to **not** use a drug
Define indication
reason for using a drug
Define toxicology
Study of poisons
Define pharmacology
study of drugs
4 ways use of drug can affect the outcome of a dz
no effect, speed recovery, make the condition worse, cause a new/undesirable condition
Sites for MM admin
nasal, conjunctiva, vaginal, oral
14 routes of drug admin
Oral, topical, IV, IM, SQ, IP, ID, MM, IC, IU, IT, inhalation, intramammary, opthalmic
Route of drug admin influenced by:
desired speed of effect, duration of effect desired, ease of admin, properties of drug, location of desired effect, absorption rate of drug
Define prescription
an oral or written order to a pharmacist by an MD/DVM/DDS
Three purposes of prescription
Tells pharmacist to: prepare med, sell med to client, and goiven written directions on how a drug should be used
What is AMDUCA?
Federal act passed in 1994 stating that DVMs may legally use and Rx drugs for species and uses not specified by their labels in certain well-defined circumstances (extra-label use)
3 general purposes for use of drugs in livestock
tx dz, prevent dz, increase rate of weight gain
7 things to do to avoid drug reactions
use drug as intended, use as directed, avoid combining drugs, be aware of toxic side effects, use high quality drugs, choose least toxic of avail drugs, get pt history
5 ways to remove drug from body
induce vomitting, stomach pump, diuresis, charcoal/protectants, administer antidote
4 examples of schedule II drugs
pentobarbitol, morphine, cocaine, codeine
Schedule _____ drugs have accepted medical uses and high abuse potential - they must be kept in a safe, not just a lockbox
Schedule II drugs
5 examples of schedule I drugs
heroin, LSD, marijuana, crack cocaine, peyote
Schedule ___ drugs have no (or controversial) accepted medical use and high abuse potential.
Schedule I drugs
What introduced laws concerning addictive drugs and established the DEA?
Controlled Substance Act of 1970
Drug laws regulate what three things?
Quality, testing, and misuse of drugs.
Three ways drugs are named
chemical name, generic name, and trade/brand name
A VT may **not**, w/o explicit or written orders from a DVM, do what two things?
Prescribe/recommend drugs, and administer/dispense drugs
Things to cover when explaining administration instructions to a client
regimen (route, frequency, duration), precautions, "how to" tips for administration, signs of adverse reactions
Define chemotherapy
tx of dz w/ chemical agents
Generally, ____ & _______ play a more significant role on animal health than do drugs
hygiene and nutrition