Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/113

Click to flip

113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bactericidal + bacteriostatic =
Antagonistic
bacteriostatic + bacteriostatic =
additive
bactericidal + bactericidal =
synergistic
________ are penicillinase resistant
isoxasols
what type of AB is ampicillin?
penicillin
amoxicillin is a type of?
penicillin
Polyflex (R) is a type of?
ampicillin/penicillin
Amoxi-Drop (R) or Amoxi Tabs (R) are types of what?
amoxicillin/penicillin
what is clavamox?
amoxicillin + clavulanate potassium, which is a chemical helper that binds to penicillinase and inacvtivates it
methicillin is a type of what?
isoxasol
oxacillin is a type of what?
isoxasol
cloxacillin is a type of what?
isoxasol
dicloxacillin is a type of what?
isoxasol
Excenel (R) is a type of what?
cephalosporin
Naxcel(R) is a type of what?
cephalosporin
Cefa-drops(R) and Cefa-tabs(R) are types of what?
cephalosporin
Cefa-Lak(R) is a type of what?
cephalosporin
tetracycline hydrochloride is a type of what?
tetracycline
tetracycline hydrochloride (Panamycin(R)) is a type of what?
tetracycline
oxytetracycline (Terramycin(R)) is a type of what?
tetracycline
chlortetracycline (Aureomycin(R)) is a type of what?
tetracycline
doxycycline is a type of what?
tetracycline
minocycline is a type of what?
tetracycline
streptomycin is a type of what?
aminoglycoside
neomycin is a type of what?
aminoglycoside
kanamycin is a type of what?
aminoglycoside
gentamycin is a type of what?
aminoglycoside
dihydrostreptomycin is a type of what?
aminoglycoside
Amforal (R) is a type of what?
kanamycin/aminoglycoside
Gentocin(R) is a type of what?
gentamycin/aminoglycoside
amikacin/Amikin(R) is a type of what?
aminoglycoside
tobramycin is a type of what?
aminoglycoside
enrofloxacin/Baytril(R) is a type of what?
flouoroquinolone
difloxacin HCL/Dicural(R) is a type of what?
fluoroquinolone
orbifloxacin/Orbax(R) is a type of what?
fluoroquinolone
tilmicosin phosphate/Micotil(R) is a type of what?
macrolide
erythromycin is a type of what?
macrolide
tylosin/Tylosan(R) is a type of what?
macrolide
clindamycin/Antirobe(R) is a type of what?
lincosamide
lincomycin/Lincocin(R)is a type of what?
lincosamide
Primor(R) is a type of what?
sulfonamide
Albon(R) is a type of what?
sulfonamide
Tribrissen(R) is a type of what?
sulfonamide
Nuflor(R) is a type of what?
florfenicol
nystatin/Panalog(R)/Dermaolone(R) is used to tx what?
superficial fungal infections
clotrimazole/Otomax(R)/Lotrimin(R)is used to tx what?
superficial fungal infections
miconazole/Monistat(R)/Conofite(R)/Dermazole(R) is used to tx what?
superficial fungal infections
ketoconazole/Nizoral(R) cream is used to tx what?
superficial fungal infections
griseofulvin/Fulvicin U/F(R) is used to tx what? what is unusual about this med?
used to tx superficial fungal infections

is a systemic tx for a topical infection
amphotericin B/Fungizone (R) is used to tx what?
systemic fungal infections
flucytosine/Ancobon(R) is used to tx what?
systemic fungal infections
itraconazole/Sporanox(R) is used to tx what?
systemic fungal infections
ketaconazole/Nozoral(R) tablets is used to tx what?
systemic fungal infections
Two important advantages that cephalosporins have over penicillin
1) Active against penicillinase producing bacteria
2) Eff. against some GN bacteria as well as GP
Which ABs are eff against rickettsial organisms?
tetracyclines
what med is eff against all staph?
cephalosporins
What med must be protected from oxygen and light, is packaged in airtight foil packets, and is a pill that should not be cut?
clavamox
what is the drug of choice for Lyme dz?
doxycycline
what med needs to be kept cool and dry - heat and humidity can lead to toxic degredation leading to V/D and kidney problems?
tetracyclines
What med causes yellowing of teeth in young animals?
tetracyclines
what med should not be given w/ clacium or magnesium products (milk, antacids)or it won't be absorbed from the GI tract?
tetracyclines
What med can have serious side effects such a nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, and neuromuscular problems?
aminoglycosides
What med has recently been pulled from the poultry market due to resistant campylobacter being found in turkey and chicken meat?
fluoroquinolones
what med is very fast acting - viability of bacteria is lost w/i 20-30 minutes post-exposure?
fluoroquinolones
What med should cats be dosed SID at the low end of the dosing scale to avoid retinal degeneration, wakefulness, seizures, and possible death?
fluoroquinalones
What mes should you avoid giving to young dogs during the rapid growth phase (@-12 months) as it can cause lesions on the joint articular cartilage?
fluoroquinalones
What med is potentially lethal to horses, swine, and humans and should not come in contact w/ your skin?
tilmicosin phosphate/Micotil(R)
What med has a narrow spectrum - primarily GP and anaerobes, and is toxic to guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, and horses? It causes sever fatal diarrhea by killing of the normal healthy GI flora of animals w/ a large ceca.
lincosamides
What med is actually an antibacterial and not a antibiotic? Why?
sulfonamides
not produced from a living organism
What med can be used to tx coccidiosis?
sulfonamides
What med are a lot of people allergic to thus it is very limited in the use of food producing animals?
sulfonamides
What med can cause crystaluria?
Sulfonamides
What med is illegal to use in food producing animals due to the risk of aplastic anemia in humans?
chloramphemicol
What med is the drug of choice for meningitis? Why?
chloramphenicol
crosses the BBB
What med has an adverse effect of blood dyscrasias in cats?
chloramphenicols
What med has results that tend to be reliable in the lab but not in the body?
choramphenicols
What med is synergistic w/ trimethoprim?
sulfonamides
Define AB
Chemical compound produced by one microorganism that has the ability to kill or inhibit another microorganism
How do cidals work?
Kill bacteria - usually by interfering with cell wall synthesis
How do statics work?
Inhibit cell growth and multiplication by interferring with protein synthesis. Statics depend on the body's own immune system to kill and remove bacteria.
What cannot go IV?
Suspensions
what can affect drug stability?
Time, heat, light, exposure to oxygen
What is R-factor?
Plasmids are packets of extrachromosomal DNA in bacterial cells. Some R-factor plasmids help a bacterium against an AB and can survive to be passed on to other generations or other strains of bacteria - this leads to resistance.
Surest measure of effectiveness of an AB is a given situation is what? When will it be seen?
Clinical response
should be seen w/i 24-48 hours
3 tools used to select the proper AB
clinical experience
gram stain
culture and sensitivity
MIC
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
the smallest amount of an AB needed that will kill or inhibit the organism
Statics given more or less frequent?
More - need to have a constant AB level
Cidals given more or less frequent?
Less - need to have peaks and valleys in AB levels to allow some reproduction to occur
Duration of tx depends on what three things?
Knowledge of dz and severity
clinical symptoms
clinical response
Why are combo drugs perhaps not a good idea?
Ratios of the meds cannot be changed
What is penicillinase?
Enzyme produced by some bacteria which destroys the beta lactam ring of the penicillin - gives bacteria resistance to the effects of penicillin
First version of penicillin that could be taken orally
penicillin V
Second major modification to the penicillin molecule?
ampicillin
Why is doxycycline the drug of choice for Lymes?
Given BID, not TID or QID
What should not be given w/ Amphotercin B?
aminoglycosides
What is used to tx dental infections and abscesses?
clindamycin/Antirobe(R)
What is toxic to hind gut fermentors?
lincosamides
What comes in a powder form and is used to tx dogs w/ diarrhea?
tylosin/Tylan (R)
If given IM, what two macrolides are very painful?
erythromycin and tylosin
What two meds can be used to tx foot rot?
macrolides & sulfonamides
What was originally developed as an industrial dye?
sulfonamides
What med works by blocking the synthesis of folic acid?
sulfonamides
What med is used to tx pseudomonas?
aminoglycosides
What 5 meds are statics?
tetracyclines
macrolides
lincosamides
sulfonamides
chloramphemicols
What med is usually reserved for tx of GN?
aminoglycosides
What med should not be given w/ barbituates? Why?
chloramphenicols
prolongs barbituate metabolism
What med is never considered a first drug of choice?
chloramphenicols
What two meds are narrow spectrum?
penicillins and lincosamides
What two meds are excreted in the active form?
tetracylines and sulfonamides
What are dermatophytes and what does it cause?
Ringworm
superficial fungal infections
Absorption of griseofulvin is enhanced if given w/ what?
fatty meal
GI yeast infections are often tx w/ oral nystatin - what is special about the administration of this med?
Needs to come in direct contact w/ yeast to kill it. It is painted on in the oral cavity.
Systemic fungal infections are also known as what?
deep fungal infections