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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is meant by the statement: "microbes are ubiquitous"?
they are everywhere
What is Microbiology?
The study of
microscopic organisms
At the beginning of the 19th century, microorganisms were considered what?
Mysterious oddities
When did the world become aware of the effects of microorganisms?
The 19th century
How are Microorganisms harmful to humans?
Agents of food spoilage
Agents of disease
How are Microorganisms useful to humans?
They are involved in the study of various processes of living systems.
How are Microorganisms beneficial to humans?
They are decomposers of dead organic matter and are essential for food formation (cheese, yogurt).
"Etiological agents of disease" means what?
Etiological means 'origins of', and the statement refers to the 'microbial causes of disease'.
Microbes which cause disease are called what?
What fields of science have benefited from microbiology?
Biochemistry and Genetics are 100 yrs behind without their study.
Name the things microbes manufacture which are beneficial to humans:
antibodies, hormones, amino acids, vitamins, interferons, and contribute to growth factors.
What are interferons involved in?
Interferons are involved in the treatment of cancer
How are microbes harmful?
They spoil food and they can be pathogenic
microbes are beneficial to humans in that they manufacture proteins
they manufacture amino acids
What is the theory of Spontaneous Generation?
the idea that life could and did appear spontaneously from nonliving and decomposing matter (ie frogs from mud, flies from rotting meat)
Who was creidited with the formation of the Spontaneous Generation Theory?
Aristotle (346 BC) is credited with the theory
Who was the first to discredit the theory of Spontaneous Generation?
Francisco Redi (1665)
How was the theory of Spontaneous Generation discredited?
Redi's experiment showed that flies were not spontaneously generated in meat: that they came from eggs (maggots).
Experiment involved two bottles with meat inside: one with netting, the other uncovered. The uncovered one showed flies, the other none.
Who is considered the 'Father of Microbiology'?
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
What did van Leeuwenhoek do?
He was the first to gaze upon Euglena, discovering bacteria and describing microscopic forms.
What did Leeuwenhoek use in his research?
He used a microscope of his own design, which magnified up to 500 times.
Who postulated the "Germ Theory of Fermentation"?
Louis Pasteur
What is the "Germ Theory of Fermentation"?
"A natural process in which alcohol and organic acids are formed from dissolved sugar in the presence of microorganism and the absence of air."
Describe the "Non-vital" viewpoint on fermentation
yeasts is a byproduct of fermentation
Describe the "Vital" (biological) viewpoint on fermentation
fermentation is a byproduct of the yeast
Joseph Lister (English) did what?
developed the antiseptic surgery sterilization of instruments and application of carbonic acid (phenol) to wounds by means of dressing
The Compound Microscope:
the ability to enlarge image
The Compound Microscope:
Resolution (or Resolution Power)
the ability to show detail clearly
formula for Resolution Power
RP = wave length of light (in nm)
2x numerical appeture
white light in nm
between 380nm (violet) and 750nm
resolution is the function of
Resolution is the function of the wave length of light
What are the levels of classification in taxonomy?
Taxonomy is ...
the science of classification
how many different species are named and described?
1.8 million
what is classification?
the arrangement of organisms according to their properties and characteristics
binomial system of nomenclature:
each organism has two word names
What other four scientists before Pasteur have disproved spontaneous generation (that we have studied)?
Francisco Redi
Louis Jabolt
Theodore Schwann
Franz Schulze
What are the steps to the Nitrogen Cycle
1. Nitrogen Fixation
2. Nitrification
3. Assimilation
4. Ammonification
5. Denitrification
Nitrogen Cycle:
Nitrogen Fixation
Converts atmospheric nitrogen (n2) into ammonia (NH3)
Nitrogen Cycle:
Conversion of Ammonia (NH3) into Nitrate (NO3-)
Nitrogen Cycle:
the use of ammonia (NH3) and Nitrate (NO3-)by plants to make their own proteins and bodies, then eaten by animals
Nitrogen Cycle:
conversion of organic compounds and wastes into ammonia
Nitrogen Cycle:
conversion of nitrate (NO3-) into free nitrogen (N2)
What are the steps involved with nitrification?
1. ammonia (NH3) to Nitrite (NO2-) with the help of the bacteria nitrosomonas
2. from Nitrite (NO2-) to Nitrate (NO3-) with the help of bacteria Nitrobacter
Give an example of ammonification
Urea is converted by bacteria Proteus Vulgaris into ammonia during urea hydrolysis
give an example of denitrification
in the lab, tests are done -- called Nitrate reduction -- where bacteria can convert Nitrate (NO3-) to Nitrite (NO2-) [e.coli] or Nitrate to free nitrogen (n2) [pseudomonas]
Louis Jablot
showed microbial growth when sterilized soup is uncovered vs covered (stoppered tightly after boiling)
Pasteur's quote re swan neck experiments
"For I have kept from them, and am still keeping from them the one thing which is above power of man to make: I have kept from them the germs that float in the air, I have kept from them life."
fermentation is a natural process in which ALCOHOL AND ORGANIC ACIDS are formed from dissolved sugar in the presence of microorganisms and the absence of air
first proof that bacteria cause disease
Rober Koch in 1876 found rod-shaped bacteria in the blood of cattle that died of anthrax.
Koch's postulates
1. The organism must be found in all animals suffering from the disease, but not in healthy animals.
2. The organism must be isolated from a diseased animal and grown in pure culture.
3. The cultured organism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy animal.
4. The organism must be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal.
Gelatin melts at
26 deg C
who introduced the Petri Dish?
Richard Petri, assistant to Koch
Walter Hesse did what?
assistant to Koch, he learned of agar-agar as a better solidifying agent than gelatin
agar solid at what temps?
solidifies from 32-40 °C.