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141 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Mature male equine, 5+ yrs is called a what?
Mature female equine 5+ yrs is called a what?
newborn equine is called a what?
Young male equine up to 5 yrs is called a what?
a young female equine up to 5 yrs is called a what?
a castrated male equine is called a what?
Horses w/ a conformation suited for riding are classified as what?
Light horses
Draft breeds used for harness and heavy pulling are classified as what?
Heavy breeds
Horses w/ Arabian/desert origins are called what?
Draft horses w/ northern European origin are called what?
Horses that are a cross between hot blooded and cold blooded are called what?
Warm blooded
What is a smaller type of horse w/ different proportions than that of a larger horse?
What is a smaller version of large horse w/ same proportions of larger horse?
What equine has 62 chromosomes?
What is a female donkey called?
What is a male donkey called?
What is spanish for donkey?
What is a 63 chromosomed cross between a mare and a jack called?
What is a 63 chromosomed cross between a stallion and a jenny called?
What equine has 66 chromosomes?
Przewalski's horse
How big is a "hand"?
In equine, what is a grade?
non-registered horse
What is the near side of a horse?
left side
What is the far side of a horse?
right side
On which side is horse usually approached and mounted?
near/left side
Normal equine temp?
99 - 100.8 (100.5)
Normal equine pulse?
32-44 bpm
Normal equine respiration?
8-16 rpm
What is equine borborygmi? Rate?
abdominal sounds - 2x/min
How do you safely walk/approach a horse?
approach at 45 degree angle to horse's shoulder (avoid blind spots), always lead from near side (left), be first thru doorway, do not wrap lead rope around wrist/hand, use quick release knots when tying
How should a horse be released into a stall or paddock?
Walk horse in, then make U-turn and release lead rope - you want the rear end facing away from the door
6 common methods of equine restraint?
crossties, twitch, skin pinch, ear hold, chain shank, and chemical restraint
describe equine restraint method of crossties
tie head from opposite sides using quick-release knots
describe this method of equine restraint - twitch
it is a pole w/ a chain or rope loop on end - you pull the upper lip through the loop and twist the pole to tighten. Only tighten to get the horse's attention, then release
Describe the equine method of restraint - skin pinch
grab skin at neck and twist to get horse's attention
Describe this method of equine restraint - ear hold
used to get horse's attention but can damage ear cartilage if not careful
Describe this method of equine restraint - chain shank
chain attached to halter which is passed under chin or over gums to get the horse's attention
What meds may be used to chemically restrain a horse?
xylazine, acepromazine, detomidine, ketamine
What are the common vaccines a horse should receive prior to the breeding season?
influenza, sleeping sickness, and tetanus
What vax is given 3x during equine gestation?
rhinopneumonitis - given at 5/7/9 months
Prior to breeding, a horse should be up to date on vax and receive a physical exam. What 3 three things should the PE include?
1)Visual exam of vagina 2)Rectal exam of ovaries, uterus, and cervix 3)Uterine exam if it is an old mare or has a hx of abortions
What is a equine windsucker?
Anus is more cranial than vulva - causes problems as fecal material contaminates the vulva
What is a Caslick's procedure?
Procedure to correct a windsucker - brings it back into line
What is the most significant cell to be found on an equine uterine swab? Why?
PMNs - high correlation between PMNs and endometritis
What is "Transitional Heat"?
first heat cycle of the breeding season - hard to get pregnant at this time
What is "Foal Heat"? How does it affect the foal?
Mare goes into heat about 9 days after delivery. Hormonal changes in mare's milk often cause foal to get diarrhea
When do horses reach puberty?
about 18 months - depends on breed - can vary from 10-24 months
When is equine breeding season?
February to October
Three ways that equine breeding season can be manipulated
1)artificially lengthened photoperiod 2)Regumate which is a synthetic progesterone that can postpone estrus 3)human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) which causes ovulation w/i 36 hours after injection
What type of estrus cycle does a horse have?
Seasonally polyestrus
What is the length of equine estrus cycle?
21 days
What is the length of equine heat?
5-7 days
Six signs of equine heat
1)winks vulvar lips 2)spreads rear legs 3)frequent urination 4)raises tail and deflects laterally 5)"witchy" behavior 5) accepts stallions attention
What is the length of equine gestation?
320-360 days
What happens if twins are detected in an equine pregnancy?
One of the fetuses is manually crushed to terminate.
60-80% of mares foal when?
Between midnight and 6AM
What % of equine parturitions require no intervention?
Approx 90%
What are some signs of equine parturition?
udder enlarges 2-4 wks prior, muscles over croup soften less than 2 wks prior, teats wax up 2-4 days prior, dripping colostrum 12-24 hours prior, "Foal Watch"/water softness test
Equine newborn care
make sure breathing, do not prematurely rupture cord, dip umbilicus in iodine, should stand w/i an hour, nurse w/i 3, pass meconium w/i 3 hrs of nursing, give tetanus antitoxin to foal and mare
What is "failure of passive transfer"?
foal did not get enough antibody in colostrum for adequate protection - either foal not nursing, mom neglecting foal, no colostrum from mom, etc.
What is isoerythrolysis?
incompatibility between mare's antibodies and foal's RBCs - somewhat like rH factor in humans. Signs in foal are failure to thrive, anemia, and/or edema
What is "combined immunodeficiency"?
It is a congenital lymphopenia (missing B and T cells) seen in Arab foals
How is parturition in the horse different than in the cow?
much less assistance needed/complications for horses
What is poll evil?
swelling at poll - caused by knocking head or Brucella abortus
What is wobbles? Also called?
Also called enzootic equine incoordination or equine spinal ataxia. Caused by spinal cord compression at C5-C6, affects hindlimbs and is one of the most common neuro problems in horses
What is Fistulus Withers?
swelling at withers from some sort of wound often caused by Brucella abortus
What is Sweeny?
atrophy of the supraspinatus/infraspinatus muscles - damage to the suprascapular nerve and then muscle atrophies
What is Capped Elbow/Shoe Boil?
trauma to elbow (often from hind leg)leading to soft swelling
What are Bucked Shins?
swelling and pain at dorsal surface of cannon bone due to excessive stress on bone. Caused by microfractures/hemorrhage beneath the periosteum, they are like stress fractures
What are splints?
Hot, painful swelling on splint bone caused by stress or trauma to interosseous ligament
What are osselets?
hard swelling at dorsal surface of fetlock joint - indication of fetlock joint arthritis
What is High Ringbone?
Hard swelling on distal long pastern or proximal short pastern - indication of pastern joint arthritis
What is Low Ringbone?
hard swelling on distal short pastern or proximal coffin bone (at coronary band) - indication of arthritis at coffin joint
What is greasy heel/scratches?
soft swelling on palmar or plantar surface of pastern caused by skin infection
What is laminitis?
When blood is shunted away from laminae in hoof wall this causes swelling, hemorrhage, and death of laminae. Death of laminae causes hoof wall to separate from the coffin bone and the coffin bone rotates toward the sole of the foot
Causes of laminitis?
Many - grain overload, cold water in overheated horse, endometritis, lush spring grass, road concussion, colic
Signs of laminitis? (5)
weight shifting, reluctance to move, moving weight from front to back feet, pounding digital pulse, affected feet are warm
Tx of laminitis?
It will not reverse, can possibly prevent progression by finding cause and removing/tx. NSAIDs, special shoes, mineral oil if due to grain overload.
What is Navicular Syndrome?
Destruction of navicular bone (distal sesamoid) due to decreased blood flow caused by frequent hard surface work or lg body combined w/ small feet.
Signs of Navicular Syndrome
shuffle/stumbling gait, toes wearing quicker, pain in heels
How is Navicular Syndrome dx?
Hoof tester (big pliers), block low palmar nerve to see if it improves.
Tx of Navicular Syndrome
NSAIDs, Isoxsuprine (vasodilator), "nerving" (cut palmar nerve)
What are bowed tendons?
Soft, warm swelling at palmar area of pastern. Straining & damage to superficial, deep flexor tendons, or suspensory ligament that often occurs in performance horses at the end of a strenuous work out
What is Gonitis?
Swelling/inflammation of stifle joint
Almost all equine rear limb lamenesses are due to _________ of some sort.
What is Bog Spavin?
swelling/fluid at hock joint
What is Bone Spavin (True or Jack Spavin)?
arthritis of hock joint due to repeated concussion or poor conformation
What is Capped Hock?
Soft/fluid swelling at hock
What is Curb?
inflammation of plantar ligament due to stall kicking/poor conformation
What is Thoroughpin?
swelling of tendon sheath of deep digital flexor tendon at tarsal joint
What is Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Disease? (COPD)
caused by allergy to dust/mold spores in hay - chronic cough/dyspnea. Shows a "heave line". Manage by feeding outdoors/wetting hay, tx w/ bronchodilators /steroids
What is Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage/Bleeder?
Common in racing horses, it is a hemorrhage into lungs. Shows a bloody discharge from nose and increased swallowing after exercise. Lasix is given before race to reduce signs.
What is Epiglottal Entrapment?
Epiglottis becomes trapped by cartilage folds of larynx resulting in airflow obstruction. Signs are coughing and increased respiratory noise. Needs surgical correction to remove cartilage folds
What is Left Laryngeal Hemiplegia/Roaring?
vocal cords on left side of larynx are paralyzed due to damage of left laryngeal nerve causing increased respiratory noise on inspiration during exercise. Tx is surgical - tie-back or cut out vocal cord.
What is Guttural Pouch Empyema?
Pus in the guttural pouch, usually secondary to resp infection
What is Guttureal Pouch Mycosis?
Fungal infection in Guttural Pouch - can cause invasion of carotid artery and difficulty swallowing
What is colic?
Pain in the abdomen
4 general causes of colic?
parasites, gas accumulation, grain overload, and viral/bacterial infections
6 general signs of colic?
horse kicking at abdomen, looks at flank, stretches frequently, rolling, heavy sweating, does not respond to handling
4 ?s to ask an owner when colic is suspected
how long, any feces passed, any sudden change in routine, any meds given/response?
4 types of colic?
spasmodic, obstructive, displacement, embolic
What is spasmodic colic?
simple or gas colic - CRT/MM is normal, pulse normal, increased gut sounds - Tx-walking may help
With any colic it is important not to let horse do what? Why?
Do not let them roll - could twist bowel
Obstructive colic?
Needs vet's attention - CRT/mm - prolonged/deep red, pulse 60-80, gut sounds-diminished/absent, Tx - laxatives or surgery
A silent gut in a horse is _______.
Displacement colic
Emergency! Signs are violent rolling/extreme pain, CRT/mm - prolonged/muddy brown, pulse-over 80, gut sounds -absent, Tx is usually surgery
Equine Encephalomyelitis/sleeping sickness - cause, signs, zoonotic?
Caused by virus from bird carried to horses by mosquitoes. Signs are incoordination/drowsiness/fever/paralysis/seizures/ death. Is zoonotic!
3 types of Equine Encephalomyelitis/sleeping sickness
Eastern (EEE), Western (WEE), Venezuelan (VEE)
Equine Rhinopneumonitis - cause, signs and prevention
Virus, late term abortions/weak foals/flu-like symptoms, vax at 5/7/9 months of gestation
Strangles/distemper - cause, signs, prev
streptococcis equi, fever/abscesses of submandibular lymph nodes/choking/dyspnea, vax/intranasal(new)
Equine Infectious Anemia - cause, signs, prev
virus (carried by horse fly/mosquitoes/needles), fever/anemia/incoordination, +coggins Test/cull + horses or keep in screened barns
Potomac Horse Fever/equine monocytic erlichosis - cause, signs, prev
rickettsia, extreme diarrhea/laminitis/fever, vax
Equine Viral Arteritis - cause, signs, prev
viral (spread through resp secretions and mating), abortion/edema/fever, vax
Equine Protoazoal Myelitis (EPM) - cause, signs, prev
protozoa spread by opossums that invades the CNS of horses, incoordination, no prev
Tetnaus - cause, signs, prev
clostridium tetani (found in horse manure/soil), stiff muscles/exaggerated reflexes/prolapse of nictating membrane, vax
Equine dz in which mosquitoes carry the virus from birds to horses
Equine Encephalomyelitis
Equine Dz for which a Coggins Test is used
Equine Infectious Anemia
Equine dz spread by opossums
Equine Protozoal Myelitis
Equine dz spread through resp secretions and mating
Equine Viral Arteritis
6 things to do to manage equine parasites
worm e/o month, worm daily w/ Strongid C, rotate pastures, remove manure, quarantine new horses before adding to herd, keep young horses separate from adult horses
Large Strongyles/Bloodworms - habitat and signs
lg intestines, can cause embolic colic
Sm strongyles - habitat and signs
lg intestines, diarrhea
Strongyloides Westeri/threadworm - habitat and signs
small intestines, acute diarrhea in vy young foals - possible zoonosis
Parascaris Equorum/roundworm - habitat and signs
sm intestines, "summer cold"/worse in foals
Gastrophilus/Bots - habitat and signs
maggots of bot fly live in horse's stomach (adults lay eggs in horse's hair), oral ulcers/stomach problems/stomach perforations(rarely)
Anocephala/equine tapeworm - habitat, signs
small intestines, unthrifty *intermediate host: orbatid mite*
Habronema/stomach worm - habitat, signs
stomach (housefly carries larva to horse's mouth), nodules in stomach wall/"summer sores"
Oxyuris equi/horse pinworm - habitat and signs
rectum, anal itching/broken tail hairs
Scientific name for equine bloodworms
Large Strongyles
Scientific name for equine threadworms
Strongyloides Westeri
Scientific name for equine roundworm
Parascaris Equorum
Scientific name for equine bots
Scientific name for equine tapeworm
Scientific name for equine stomachworm
Scientific name for equine pinworm
Oxyuris equi
Where is blood usually collected from in a horse? What to avoid?
Jugular vein - make sure to avoid carotid artery just beneath jugular
Site for equine IV drug administration
Jugular vein via IV catheter
Sites for equine IM injections
neck, pectorals, gluteals
Site for SQ admin in horses
skin tent up in neck region
Common methods of oral admin in horses
pastes, nasogastric tubes
Specific location of IM injection in neck
between nuchal ligament + cervical spine + front of shoulder