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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Factors that affect homeostasis of fluid balance in the body are?

a. physiological processes

b. Movement

c. Water content in the body

d. all of the above
All of the above
Fluid Compartments in the body are?

a. Intracellular fluid (ICF)

b. Extracellular fluid (ECF)

c. all of the above

d. none of the above
All of the above
Extracellular fluid (ECF) is ?

a. within cells

b. outside the cells
outside the cells
Plasma is an example of?

a. Intracellular fluid

b. Intravascular fluid

c. Interstitial fluid

d. Transcellular fluid
Intravascular fluid
Intravascular fluid is an example of?

a. Intracellular fluid (ICF)

b. Extracellular fluid (ECF
Extracellular fluid (ECF
Extracellular fluid that surrounds the cells is called?

a. Intravascular fluid

b. Interstitial fluid

c. Transcellular fluid
Interstitial fluid
Lymph fluids, cerebrospinal fluid, & pericardial fluid are examples of?

a. Intravascular fluid

b. Interstitial fluid

c. Transcellular fluid
Transcellular fluid
Examples of Transcellular fluid are?

a. plasma

b. fluids that surrounds the cells

c. lymph fluids, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial

d. fluid within cells
lymph fluids, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial
Cell membranes are?

a. passivly permeable

b. selectivly permeable
selectivly permeable
Movement of fluid and ions occur by?

a. Osmosis

b. Filtration

c. Active Transport

d. all of the above
All of the above
The movement of fluid through semipermeable membrane from lower to higher concentration is?

a. Filtration

b. Osmosis

c. Active Transport
Osmosis
The pulling power of a solution for water that forces the solution through the membrane is?

a. filtration

b. active Transport

c. osmotic (Oncotic)pressure

d. none of the above
osmotic (Oncotic)pressure
Terms used when referring to the concentration of a solution?

a. osmolality

b. osmolarity

c. osmosis

d. osmolality & osmolarity
osmolality & osmolarity
Having the same osmolality as normal plasma is?

a. Isotonic

b. Hypotonic

c. Hypertonic

d. solute
Isotonic
Isotonic solutions having the same osmolality as normal plasma are?

a. Normal Saline & LR

b. 1/2 NS

c. 3% NS

d. none of the above
Normal Saline & LR
Hypotonic is?

a. Higher osmolality

b. Having same osmolality as normal plasma

c. Lower osmolality
Lower osmolality
A hypotonic solution?

a. NS & LR

b. 1/2 NS

c. 3% NS

d. none of the above
1/2 NS
A hypertonic solution?

a. NS & LR

b. 1/2 NS

c. 3% NS

d. none of the above
3% NS
Having a higher osmolality would be?

a. isotonic

b. hypotonic

c. hypertonic
hypertonic
Examples of Solvents would be?

a. salts that dissolve readily

b. substances that do not dissolve readily

c. Electrolytes, glucose, oxygen, proteins

d. A solution that can dissolve a solute
A solution that can dissolve a solute
Water is a _______ in the body?

a. solute

b. solvent
solvent
Substances that can be dissolved in liquid are?

a. solute

b. solvent
solute
Substances that do not dissolve readily are?

a. salts

b. colloids

c. crystalloids

d. glucose

e. oxygen, proteins
colloids
A process where fluids and solutes move together across a membrane from one compartment to another?

a. osmosis

b. active transport

c. filtration
filtration
Movement from higher pressure to lower pressure where fluids and solutes move together across a membrane from one compartment to another?

a. active transport

b. osmosis

c. filtration

d. passive transport
filtration
Movement from less concentration to more concentration that takes metabolic energy?

a. b. filtration

c. osmotic pressure
Active transport
A type of movement that occurs in combination with a carrier to cross the cell membrane as in sodium & potassium is?

a. osmotic pressure

b. filtration

c. active transport
active transport
Four routes of fluid output are?

a. Urine

b. Insensible loss

c. Feces

d. Obligatory losses

e. All of the above
All of the above
Signals for thirst come from?

a. adrenals

b. hypothalmus

c. Aldosterone system

d. ADH
hypothalmus
Glucocorticoids ?

a. released by adrenals & retains sodium and water

b. regulates water excretion from kidney

c. release of aldosterone

d. Promotes sodium and water retention
released by adrenals & retains sodium and water
Regulates water excretion from kidney?

a. Glucocorticoids

b. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system

c. Atrial Natriuretic factor

d. Antidiuretic hormone
Antidiuretic hormone
Releases aldosterone & promotes sodium and water retention?

a. Glucocorticoids

b. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system

c. Atrial Natriuretic factor

d. Antidiuretic hormone
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system
Chemical Regulation of fluids within the body occurr by?

a. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

b. Aldosterone

c. all of the above

d. none of the above
All of the above
Examples of an Isotonic Fluid loss are?

a. Hemorrhage

b. GI losses

c. Burns

d. Diuretics

e. Third space shifting
All of the above
Mens body weight is accounted for by _______% water?

a. 30%

b. 40%

c. 60%
60%
Womens body weight is accounted for by _______% water?

a. 30%

b. 40%

c. 60%
40%
Intracellular fluid (ICF) accounts for what % of body fluid?

a. 1/10th

b. 2/4th

c. 1/3rd's

d. 2/3rd's
2/3rd's
Metabolic processes occur in?

a. Intracellular Fluid

b. Intravascular Fluid

c. Interstitial Fluid

d. Transcellular fluid
Intracellular Fluid
Fluid that transports waste in & out of the cell?

a. Intracellular Fluid

b. Intravascular Fluid

c. Interstitial Fluid

d. Transcellular fluid
Interstitial Fluid
Type of fluid that pulls water out of cells?

a. Isotonic

b. Hypotonic

c. Hypertonic
Hypertonic
Consiering fluid balance in the body, it takes aproximately _______mls of fluid to run the body?

a. 200mls

b. 300 mls

c. 400 mls

d. 500 mls

e 500 mls
500 mls
In considering output of the body, insensible losses are ?

a. urine

b. feces

c. perspiration

d. all of the above
perspiration
Obligatory losses of fluid in the body are ?

a. urine

b. perspiration

c. feces

d. fluid necessary to run the body
fluid necessary to run the body
In lab findings a normal or high hematocrit is represented as?

a. HRT

b. HCT

c. HTR
HCT
Hypertonic dehydration is reflected in lab findings as ?

a. Elevated serum osmolality

b. Elevated serum sodium ( N 135-145)

c. Elevated serum glucose ( Fasting 60-110

d. all of the above
All of the above
Therapeutic management of fluid replacement is?

a. Oral replacement

b. Parenteral replacement

c. all of the above

d. none of the above
All of the above
Medications used to manage fluid inbalance?

a. Antiemetics

b. Phenergan

c. Antidiarrheals

d. ADH (vasopressin) if diabetes insipidus

e. Antipyretics
– Tylenol
– motrin
All of the above
An "Antiemetic" medication used in balancing fluid in the body are?

a. Imodium

b. Phenergan

c. Vasopressin

d. Tylenol

e. Motrin
Phenergan
An "Antidiarrheal" medication used in balancing fluid in the body is?

a. Imodium

b. Phenergan

c. Vasopressin

d. Tylenol

e. Motrin
Imodium
In the event of diabetes insipidus, which medication may be administered?

a. Imodium

b. Phenergan

c. Vasopressin

d. Tylenol

e. Motrin
Vasopressin
Antipyretic medications used in balancing fluid in the body is?

a. Imodium

b. Phenergan

c. Vasopressin

d. Tylenol

e. Motrin
Tylenol & Motrin
Causes of Isotonic Fluid Excess ?

a. Renal failure

b. Cardiac failure

c. High cortisol levels

d. High aldosterone levels
All of the above
Causes of Hypotonic Fluid Excess are?

a. Repeated plain water enemas

b. NG irrigation

c. Inappropriate prepared formula

d. Existing disease states
All of the above
Lab findings for fluid volume excess?

a. HCT decreased

b. BUN decreased

c. Low Serum Osmolality

d. Low Serum Sodium

e. Chest X-ray

f. Arterial Blood gases
All of the above
Therapeutic management of fluid volume excess?

a. Restrict fluid intake

b. Sodium restricted diet, protein restricted diet

c. Promote excretion
All of the above
Nursing Interventions for fluid volume excess?

a. Respiratory status

b. Monitor venous engorgement

c. Monitor fluid intake and output

d. Assess peripheral edema

e. Assess for neurological changes

f. Monitor for overcorrection

g. Medications
All of the above
Patient Education concerniong fluid volume excess?

a. risk factors

b. weigh daily

c. report gain of more than 2 lbs per week

d. elevation of extremities and frequent position changes for peripheral edema

e. Sodium restricted diet
All of the above
Patient Education for fluid volume losses?

a. notify HCP if fluid loss lasts more than a few hours in the very young, very old, or chronic illness

b. Prevention of dehydration

c. Drink variety of fluids

d. Avoid salty fluids or foods

e. dietary education
All of the above
Priority NDX for fluid volume excess?

a. Fluid volume excess RT to excessive fluid or sodium intake

b. Risk for impaired skin integrity RT edema

c. Risk for injury RT knowledge deficit of therapeutic interventions
All of the above
Priority NDX for fluid volume deficit?

a. Fluid volume deficit RT excessive fluid losses and/or decreased fluid intake

b. Risk for injury RT altered sensorium and or dizziness

c. Pain RT impact of fluid deficit

d. Risk for impaired skin integrity RT dryness

e. Risk for injury RT knowledge deficit of therapeutic interventions
All of the above
Educating patients is . . .

a. A major aspect of nursing practice

b. An independent nursing function

c. A right of patients

d. A legal and professional responsibility
All of the above !!!
Educating patirnts is important in ?

a. Promoting health

b. Protecting health

c. Maintaining health

d. Decreasing health risk factors

e. Increasing a person’s wellness
All of the above !!!
A system of activities intended to produce learning?

a. teaching
All of the above !!!
Discharge plans need to include:

a. documentation of what has been taught

b. documentation of what needs to be taught for self-care
All of the above !!!
Learning has not occurred without a change in behavior!

True or False?
True
A desire or requirement to know something that is presently unknown is?

a. a need to learn
a need to learn
A Learning theories for Behaviorism, according to Pavlov, Skinner, Bandura?

a. Positive reinforcement

b. Modeling

c. Imitation
All of the above !!!
Utilization, according to Pavlov, Skinner, Bandura, is?

a. Identification of what is being taught

b. Immediate practice

c. Role models
All of the above !!!
Learning theories on cognitvism, according to Piaget, Lewin, Bloom is?

a. Thinking process

b. Teacher/learner relationship

c. Must look at cognitive stage

d. Domains: psychomotor, affective, cognitive
All of the above !!!
Learning theories, according to Piaget, Lewin, Bloom, on Utilization are?

a. Learner’s developmental stage

b. Multisensory techniques

c. Different learning styles
All of the above !!!
Learning theories on humanism according to Maslow, Rogers?

a. Cognitive and affective qualities of learner

b. Relevant to learner
All of the above !!!
Learning theories on humanism according to Maslow, Rogers, concerning utilization are?

a. Focus on feelings and attitudes

b. Self-motivation

c. Resource person, mentor

d. Nurse/patient relationship
All of the above !!!
Nursing Diagnosis that are related to knowledge?

a. Deficient knowledge: low calorie diet related to

b. Risk for impaired parenting related to deficient knowledge in infant care and feeding

c. Goal: Patient will acquire knowledge about >>>>>>>>>
All of the above !!!
Learning domains are?

a. psychomotor

b. affective

c. cognitive
All of the above !!!
Determining what has been learned?

a. Patient demonstrates acquisition of knowledge

b. Direct observation of behavior

c. Written measurement (test)

d. Oral questioning (asking patient to restate info)

e. Self-reports and self-monitoring
All of the above !!!
Documentation of teaching?

a. Diagnoses learning needs

b. Learning outcomes

c. Topics taught

d. Patient outcomes

e. Need for additional teaching

f. Resources provided
All of the above
A nurses teaching plan should include?

a. Information and skills to be taught

b. Teaching strategies

c. Time framework and content

d. Teaching outcomes

e. Methods of evaluation
All of the above
Active Transport is?

movement of substances across cell membranes against the concentration gradient
movement of substances across cell membranes against the concentration gradient is?
Osmotic Pressure is?

Pressure exerted by the number of non-diffusible particles in a solution; the amount of pressure needed to stop the flow of water across a membrane
Pressure exerted by the number of non-diffusible particles in a solution; the amount of pressure needed to stop the flow of water across a membrane is?
Antididiuretic Hormone is?

A hormone that decreases the production of urine by increasing the reabsorption of water by the renal tubules
A hormone that decreases the production of urine by increasing the reabsorption of water by the renal tubules is?
Osmosis is?

Passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lesser solute concentration to one of greater solute concentration
Passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lesser solute concentration to one of greater solute concentration is?
Hypotonic is?

Solutions that have a lower osmolality than body fluids
Solutions that have a lower osmolality than body fluids are?
Aldosterone is?

A mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex with action in the renal tubule to retain sodium, conserve water by reabsorption, and increase potassium excretion or increase of urinary excretion of potassium.
A mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex with action in the renal tubule to retain sodium, conserve water by reabsorption, and increase potassium excretion or increase of urinary excretion of potassium is?
Diffusion is?

The mixing of molecules or ions of two or more substances as a result of random motion.
The mixing of molecules or ions of two or more substances as a result of random motion is?
Hypertonic is?

Solutions that have a higher osmolality than body fluids
Solutions that have a higher osmolality than body fluids are?
An Electrolyte is?

Chemical substances that develop an electric charge and are able to conduct an electric current when placed in water; ions
Chemical substances that develop an electric charge and are able to conduct an electric current when placed in water; ions are?
Fluid Volume Deficit is?

(hypovolemia)

A loss of both water and electrolytes in similar proportions from the ECF.
A loss of both water and electrolytes in similar proportions from the ECF is?
Hypovolemia is?

A fluid volume deficit

A loss of both water and electrolytes in similar proportions from the ECF
A fluid volume deficit is?

Hypovolemia.

A loss of both water and electrolytes in similar proportions from the ECF
Third Spacing is?

(Third Space Syndrome)

Fluid shifts from the vascular space into an area where it is not readily accessible as extracellular fluid.
When fluid shifts from the vascular space into an area where it is not readily accessible as extracellular fluid it is called?
Albumin is?

a water-soluble, heat-coagulable protein
A water-soluble, heat-coagulable protein is?
Isotonic is?

Solutions that have the same osmolality as body fluids.
Solutions that have the same osmolality as body fluids are?
Homeostasis is?

The tendency of the body to maintain a state of balance or equilibrium while continually changing; a mechanism in which deviations from normal are sensed & counteracted
The tendency of the body to maintain a state of balance or equilibrium while continually changing; a mechanism in which deviations from normal are sensed & counteracted is?
Osmolality is?

The concentration of solutes in body fluids
The concentration of solutes in body fluids is called?
Intracellular Fluid is?

(ICF)

Fluid found within the body cells, also called cellular fluid
Fluid found within the body cells, also called cellular fluid is called?
Fluid Volume Overload is?

(Excess)—(FVE) (hypervolemia)

Retention of both water & sodium in similar proportions (ECF)
Retention of both water & sodium in similar proportions(ECF) is?
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) is?

Fluid found outside the body cells
Fluid found outside the body cells is called?
Affective Domain is?

Known as the “feeling” domain & is divided into categories that specify the degree of a person’s depth of emotional response to tasks; includes feelings, emotions, interests, attitudes, & appreciations.
Known as the “feeling” domain & is divided into categories that specify the degree of a person’s depth of emotional response to tasks; includes feelings, emotions, interests, attitudes, & appreciations is called?
Andragogy is ?

The art and science of helping adults learn
The art and science of helping adults learn is called?
Cognitive Domain is?

The “thinking” domain, includes six intellectual abilities and thinking processes beginning with knowing, comprehending, and applying to analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
The “thinking” domain, includes six intellectual abilities and thinking processes beginning with knowing, comprehending, and applying to analysis, synthesis, and evaluation is called?
Geragogy is?

The term used to describe the process involved in stimulating and helping elderly persons to learn
The term used to describe the process involved in stimulating and helping elderly persons to learn is?
Pedogogy is?

The discipline concerned with helping children learn
The discipline concerned with helping children learn is called?
Psychomotor Domain is?

The “skill” domain; includes motor skills such as giving an injection
The “skill” domain; includes motor skills such as giving an injection is called?