Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Youth did not emerge until...?
World War II
During the Victorian and Edwardian times it was common for youth to work as
Apprentices and servants
The craft and trade apprentices allowed for youth to develop...?
Peer group and identity
What us "chavivari"?
Noisy public demonstration used to humiliate in front of the community
What was the point of chavivari?
Social Control for those that departed from the norm
Who first defined the term youth?
What was the human-life cycle?
Idea that there are discrete and autonomous stages and each cycle presents its own problems
3 key characteristics of Medieveal & Early Modern Society?
Low life expectancy, high rate of fertility, and a brief period between infancy and adulthood
Who identified youth as an age-category
G. Stanley Hall
What were Hall's 4 main stages and the ages for each?
Stage 1: Infancy - birth until 4
Stage 2: Childgood- 4 until 8
Stage 3: Youth- 8 until 12
Stage 4: Adolescence- 12 until 22 or 25
Freud's 4 psychosexual stages
oral, anal, phallic, and latency
Erikson had how many stages of psychosocial development?
Erikson's 5th stage was known as?
Freud's 4 psychosexual stages
oral, anal, phallic, and latency
Erikson identified youth as a...
identity crisis
Erikson =
psychosocial development
Three theories of youth
Biological determinism, social constructionist, and conflict theories
What is biological determinism?
Difference between children and adults
What is social constructionist theory?
Ways in which individuals and groups participate in the creation of their perceived reality
What is conflict theories?
Marxist. Changes in industrialization created conflict
Teenage years are...(2)
Socially and psychologically vulnerable
After WWII youth was identified as a
distinct social group
From 20th century onward the transition from childhood to adulthood became institutionalized. Examples?
Legal ages: drinking, smoking, driving.
Term "youth culture" was first used in ___ by ___
1942. Talcott Parsons
Term teenagers was coined in the 1940's by
American market researchers
6 factors that lead to the expansion of the youth market
records, pop stars, film industry, radio, television, media
3 places youth were more visible as a group
education, youth service, national service
What was youth service?
Voluntary youth service
2 Major education reform acts and what they did
1944 education act- raised age to leave school to 15. 1973 education act- raised age to leave school to 16
What was the national service?
compulsory service registration for youth
Working class youth were seen as potentially...
Middle class youth workers sought solutions such as
rehabilitation and treatment/cure not punishment
4 youth organizations
Boys' Brigade, Boy scouts, YMCA, Mission and Boys' clubs (poorer city areas)
4 reasons war was blamed for juvenile delinquency
Evacuation and interruption of schooling, effects of bombing, absent fathers and working mothers, breakdown of socialization process
Study of subculture in Britain emerged from...
America: Chicago School of Sociology
Merton's 5 points
Conformity, Innovation, Ritualism, Retreatism, Rebellion
Cloward and Ohlin's 3 types of deliquent youth
Criminal subculture, conflict subculture, retreatism subculture.
Example of each of Cloward and Ohlin's types of del. youth
Criminal- Theft and illegal means of money. Conflict- Violence as a way of winning. Retreatism- Consumption of drugs
Three Cohens
Albert, Phil, Stanley
Albert Cohen's 2 main theories
Deliquent subcultures provide an alternative source of status and respect for w/c boys. Subcultural response and solution to poverty, low status, and lack of opportunities
Albert Cohen's three modes of adaptation
Acceptance of middle class rules, Acceptance of "corner boy" role, and deliquent response.
Phil Cohen looked at ___ after ___
Changes in working class lif; 1945
4 main things Phil Cohen looked at
Extended kinship networks, local economy, local pub and corner shop, and re-housing/re-development
3 main impacts of the mass media
Representation of youth in cinema, press coverage of incidents, moral panics
First British youth subcultures and decades
The Teddy Boys- Early 1950s
Mods and Rockers- Early 1960s
Stanley Cohen studied the
Mod and Rockers
Counterculture was (3)
Anti-establishment, non-conformist, bohemian
Foundation of the counterculture was
Harlem renaissance (African-American poets and writers)
Who coined the phrase the "beat generation"
Jack Kerouac
The "Beat" culture was based on
jazz, poetry, literature, and drugs
Meaning of the word "beat"
meaning exhausted, overcome by hardwork or difficulty
The beats rejected the ... and created...
middle class way of life; alternative lifestyle
Herb Caen
Examples of British bohemians (4)
John Osborne, John Wain, Kingsley Amis, Colin Wilson
What does avant-garde mean?
French term meaning new and innovative
What is the origin of the word hippie
from hipster, African-Americans in the 1940s
Hippie as defined in 1965
Young person, preaching a philosophy of "love and peace" and using drugs
When was the term flower child first used
Hippies revolted against...with an emphasis on..
parent culture; play
6 factors that influenced revolution (counterculture)
-Growing social and political conflict
-Low economic growth rate
-"Wild cat" strikes
-Protests against Vietnam War
-Legalization of cannabis
-Student protests
What was the CND? When was it formed? Why did it attract youth?
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. 1958. Provided public forum for youthful rebellion.
Changes in the 1970s
brought a halt to social transformation through youth
In the past young women have been...
Hidden from history
Studies on females only related to ...(examples)
Sexual Deviance, "flappers", teenage pregnancy, STDs, prostitution
What was the main difference between the hipsters and the beats?
Hipsters tended to be lower class. Beats tended to be middle class
3 distinctive black youth cultures?
rastafarianism, black power, hip hop and rap
What was the main idea of rastafarian?
Descendents of Black race would return to homeland
3 things black power was a response to?
Oppresion, inequality, raising of black consciousness
What year was the National Front formed in?
What was the trial of Mangrove 9?
Police raided the place 3 times. On the third time they were charged with serving food after 11.
Who was Enoch Powell?
He argued the flow of immigration should slow down.
1970s black youth were seen as a ...
social problem
What created moral panics against black youth in the 1970s
Type of music that came to Britain in the 1950s
Drug users began with a...moved into...and then the...
small group; youth subcultures; mainstream
Early drug takers were (2)
Dealing with pain, artistic/aristocratic
Early 20th century drugs users would...and it was not seen as...
write about experience; morally wrong
World's first trip (LSD) was
April 1943
LSD stands for
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Who developed LSD? Where was he from?
Albert Hoffman. Switzerland
The CIA used LSD as a
truth syrum
Who was Timothy Leary? What did he lead?
Harvard professor who gave magic mushrooms to his theology students for a research project. Lead the psychadelic crusade
Who was Alllen Ginsburg? What was the opening line of his most famous work?
American Beat Poet who wrote the poem howl with the opening line "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness".
Who founded the World Psychadelic Centre in London in 1965?
Michael Hollingshead
What is normalization?
How subcultures or their deviant behaviour is able to be accomodated into larger groups or society.