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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what triggers coronary artery vasodilation?
AHA: anoxemia, hyperkalemia, adenosine increased
what is the calcium-binding protein in myocardium? smooth muscle?
troponin; calmodulin
what nerves are involved in the carotid sinus reaction?
glossopharyngeal IX and vagus X
how many nuclei are in each myocardial cell?
1 (for "1 heart and many skeletal muscles")
why is long action potential in myocardium important?
prevents tetany
length of action potentials in each muscle type?
cardiac: 200ms
smooth: 20ms
skeletal: 2ms
- cardiac and smooth have slow Ca++ channels; skeletal uses internal Ca++
how does digitalis work on the cardiac AP?
poisons the Na/K/Ca pump to increase intracellular Ca and increase contractility
what is McArdle's disease?
a glycogen storage disease which is due to a deficiency of muscle phosphorylase
what is the "TIC triplet"?
- troponin T: Tightly binds to tropomyosin to block attraction to myosin
- troponin I: Inhibits ATPase
- troponin C: Calcium binds it to trigger Contraction
what does ATP do in the cross-bridging of muscle fibers?
it binds to myosin head and releases actin filament
what is the Bowditch or Treppe effect?
Chronotropism: Cardiac rate increased, Calcium increased intracellularly, Contractility increased
what are the 7 big etiologies of edema?
CHARRED: Cardiac failure, Hepatic failure, Albumin deficit, Renal failure, Restricted return, Endocrine excess (cortisol, ADH), Drug effect (vasodilation)
what causes non-pitting edema?
myxedema and mucopolysaccharide deposits in severe hypothyroidism
what is the Bainbridge reflex?
stretching the right heart and the great veins causes an adrenergic response: increased contractility of the heart
how can you increase atrial natriuretic peptide release in the heart? what does increased ANP lead to?
increased preload; sodium diuresis
what does lower preload lead to?
increased ADH, an antidiuretic factor
what effect does HYPOcalcemia and HYPOkalemia have on the QRS potential?
lengthens the QRS complex, the time it takes for ventricles to depolarize and repolarize
what are the effects of HYPERcalcemia and HYPERkalemia?
coma and heart block, respectively
how are tension, pressure, resistance and wall thickness (h) related?
T = P * R * 1/2h
what happens if a patient with atrial flutter is given quinidine?
the heart block is overcome, putting the patient in danger
at what heart rate is there fetal distress?
<100 bpm
what are the effects of preload and afterload on the PV loop?
preload shifts loop to the right and afterload shifts upwards
what is the avg resting cardiac output? maximum cardiac output?
5-6 l/min; 30 l/min
what is the difference between S3 and S4 heart sounds?
S3 is early diastole (ventricular) and S4 is late diastole (atrial); "Kentucky" vs "Tennessee"
what is the cardiac 70-70-70 rule?
for a 70kg man, stroke volume is about 70ml and ejection fraction is about 70%
effect of angiotensin II? what does aldosterone do?
VAST: Vasoconstrictor, Aldosterone releaser, Sympathetic sensitizer, Thirst & salt craving; triggers absorption of Na+ and release of K+ (exchanger)
name 8 local natural hypertensives
CV STEALTH: Catecholamines, Vasopressin, Serotonin (can dilate), Thyroxine, Endothelin, Angiotensin II, Leukotriene and some prostaglandins, THromboxine (TV CLEATS)
name 4 natural vasodilators
NAPKIN ring: Nitrous oxide, Adenosine, Prostaglandins, KINins
3 mechanisms of shock
cardiogenic, hypovolemic, vasodilation
what are some effects of forward heart failure? backward heart failure?
hypoxic encephalopathy & uremia; hepatosplenomegaly & ascites
what can you do besides drugs to treat hypertension?
SAWER: Salt restriction, Alcohol avoidance, Weight control, Exercise, Relaxation
which of the left fascicles is bigger?
posterior
with sympathetic stimulation, how is the heart affected?
+chronotropism, +bathmotropism, +dromotropism, +inotropism