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88 Cards in this Set

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humanistic theory
by rogers and maslow; humans are born to be good and have the tendency to self actualize
self-actualization
striving to reach one's full potential; to be the best one can be
unconditional positive regard
to feel loved and accepted for the person someone is, no strings attached
hierarchy of needs (5)
(maslow) 1. physiological 2. safety 3. love and belongingness 4. esteem needs 5.self actualization
self-concept
(rogers) how one perceives one's self; a mental self portrait
self-fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that sets in motion behaviors which makes the expectation become true
self-ideal
the ideal person one would like to be
self esteem
the evaluation of how close one come to the self-ideal
trait theory
(allport) a disposition to behave and feel a certain way; which is designed to describe personality, not explain it
big 5 factors
used by trait theorists to describe personality: 1. emotional stability 2. social tendencies 3. attitude towards experience 4. agreeableness 5. how responsible/ dependent one is
MMPI
mm personality inventory, used for law enforcement careers; most widely used personality test
myers briggs
personality tests used for career development
cognition
thoughts, thinking
social cognitive theory
views behavior as being influenced by both social context and cognition
reciprocal determinism
the mutual interaction between cognition, behavior and the environment
personal locus of control
one's sense of control over the outcome of events
internal locus of control
the sense that individual efforts influence the outcome >> optimistic
external locus of control
the sense that external factors determine the outcome of events >> pessimistic
optimism
believing in internal locus of control
pessimism
believing in external locus of control
learned helplessness
hopelessness and passive resignation learned when unable to avoid repeated events
self-defeating beliefs (definition)
an attitude that may make one vulnerable to painful mood swings as well as conflicts in personal relationships
distorted thinking (definition)
thoughts that often causes bad feelings such as depression, anxiety, guilt, hopelessness, frustration and anger
criteria of psychological disorders (5)
behavior is: 1. maladaptive 2. self-defeating 3. harmful to self and others 4. interfering with relationships / involvement in the community 5. violating social standards
DSM IV
diagnostic and statistical manual used for classifying psychological disorders
anxiety disorders
when one experiences a sense of dread, worry or foreboding which is exaggerated and whose source is unknown
panic disorder
when one feels a sudden intense onset of anxiety which lasts only a few minutes resulting in the need to escape and not wanting to redo the event where attack occurred
obsessive compulsive disorder
having repeated thoughts resulting in repeated actions
phobia
fear in the absence of any real danger
post-traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened
dissociative disorders
a disorder in which there is a disconnection between consciousness/ awareness and feelings and memories
dissociative identity disorder
aka multiple personalities; when a person has 2 or more distinct and separate personalities as a result of [sexual] abuse as a child
personality disorders
when a person a has a persistent, inflexible personality trait that impedes social functioning
antisocial personality
aka sociopath/psychopath, when a person has a lack of conscience for wrong doing
mood disorders
when an individual experiences extreme mood states and have no middle ground
major depressive disorder
when one feels depressed for over 2 weeks without showing interest to return to regular activities
biochemical effects of depression
low serotonin and norepinephrine
bipolar disorder
aka manic depression, when one has extreme mood swings from mania to depression
biochemical effects of bipolar disorder
negative interpretation of neutral events causes the amygdala to fire excessively which shuts down the prefrontal cortex resulting in mania
psychotic disorders
when a person is out of touch with reality
characteristics of schizophrenia (4)
1. disorganized thoughts 2. delusions 3. hallucinations 4. inappropriate effect
types of delusions (2)
1. paranoid delusions 2. delusions of grandeur
causes of schizophrenia (4)
1. genetic influence 2. brain abnormalities (5) 3. early viral exposure 4. malnutrition
schizo brain abnormalities (5)
1. larger brain ventricles 2. smaller thalamus 3. irregular hippocamus development/arrangement 4. overall smaller brain size 5. excessive dopamine production
types of psychotherapy (4)
1. psychoanalysis 2. client-centered therapy 3. behavior therapy 4. cognitive-behavior therapy
psychoanalysis
(freud) based on personality theory, goal is to uncover unconscious
methods of psychoanalysis (4)
1. free association 2. resistance 3. interpretations 4. transference
free association
part of psychoanalysis, letting thoughts flow freely without censoring
resistance
happens during psychoanalysis, when the patient actively avoids threatening issues
interpretations
job of analyst to make meaningful conclusions that will give the patient insight into their own actions and feelings; making the patient aware of hidden feelings
transference
when a patient transfers/projects feelings from an outside relationship onto the therapist providing a second chance for unresolved issues; is expected to occur
counter transference
when the analyst projects his/her personal issues onto the patient
client-centered therapy
based on the humanistic theory, goal is to remove blocks from self actualizing, tries to develop a more accurate self concept
techniques for client-centered therapy
providing unconditional positive regard through active listening, paraphrasing and reflecting
active listening
when a listener conveys interest, empathy, understanding, no judgment and concern for the patient
paraphrasing
when the analyst summarizes key points to make the patient feel validated and important, also gives time to correct misunderstandings
reflecting
listener mirrors what is being not explicitly conveyed by the patient; feedback based on what the patient showing rather than what is being said
behavior therapy
goal is to unlearn maladaptive behaviors and relearn effective behaviors; aims only to fix symptoms not the underlying problems
types of behavior therapy (3)
1. counter conditioning 2. exposure 3. operant conditioning
counterconditioning
a type of behavior therapy where patients learn to replace a fear response to a stimuli with relaxation because it's physically impossible to feel both at once
types of exposure therapy (3)
1. systematic desensitization 2. aversive conditioning 3. virtual reality exposure therapy
systematic desensitization
a gradual approach to a fear evoking situation from the least fearful to most fearful stimuli; patient can't proceed to the next level until previous levels are mastered
aversive conditioning
problem behavior gets associated with an unpleasant consequence resulting in elimination of the behavior to avoid the consequence
virtual reality exposure therapy
process of desensitization using virtual reality technology, not real life
operant conditioning
type of behavior therapy that uses rewards for good behavior and punishment for bad behavior
cognitive behavior therapy
aims to change one's cognitive self-defeating thinking and behavior
cognitive therapies
aims to teach patient more adaptive ways of thinking and feeling; changing one's self defeating thinking
beck's therapy for depression
seeks to reverse patient's catastrophizing beliefs about themselves to help them discover their irrationalities
social psychology
study of how behavior, thinking and attitudes are influenced by others
attribution theory
the need to explain other people's behaviors by focusing on either 1. a person's disposition (personal qualities) or 2. situational factors (external factors, the environment)
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to overestimate one's personal disposition and underestimate situational factors when explaining the behaviors of others
cognitive dissonance
when we bring our attitudes to line up with our actions when we are aware that our attitudes and actions don't coincide
conformity
changing behavior to agree with a group standard
asch experiment
experiment that found that subject usually changed answer from obvious correct one to obvious incorrect one because everyone else did
condition that strengthen conformity (4)
1. low status in the group 2. need for approval 3. lone opinion 4. others have more expertise
obedience
compliance with someone's demands because he/she has more power
milgram experiment
experiment found that subject did unethical things under orders of superior
prejudice
a premature judgment made in the absence of adequate information; tends to be inaccurate
3 components of prejudice
1. beliefs (stereotypes, selective perception, self fulfilling prophecy) 2. emotions towards a group (negative feelings and hatred) 3. behaviors (discrimination)
stereotype
generalization which doesn't change in the face of new information
discrimination
unfair treatment of a group based on certain traits
minority group status
a group, because of the way they look, are treated unfairly and discriminated against
psychological purposes of prejudice (4)
1. boosts self-esteem 2. in group/ out group 3. just world phenomenon 4. frustration aggression theory (scapegoating minorites)
in group/ out group
"them vs. us" by placing those that look similar to oneself in the in group and placing those that are different in the out group
good and bad results of in/out group
good: group cohesion and increased morale; bad: increased competition and hostility, exaggerates differences between groups and exaggerates similarities within an out group
just world phenomenon
"life is fair, people get what they deserve", emphasizes merit and tolerates inequality
frustration aggression theory
goals are blocked >> frustration >> aggression >> scapegoating minorities
scapegoating minorities
targeting aggression toward available, easy and acceptable targets