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30 Cards in this Set

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What THREE salivary glands are found in all species? What type of saliva do they secrete?
Parotid (serous), submaxillary (mixed), sublingual (mucus)
What amino acid is lost in bile in cats, making it essential? What signs does deficiency cause? How long do they take to occur?
Taurine.
Deficiency (feeding dog food) causes central retinal degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy and early foetal loss after about 6 months
What amino acid is essential in cats and growing dogs? What signs does deficiency cause? How long do they take to occur?
Arginine
Deficiency (feeding non-animal protein) causes hyperammonaemia within hours-days
What is the function of thiamine (vitamin B1)? What does deficiency cause, and how might it arise?
Cofactor of glucose metabolism and amino acid/fatty acid oxidation. Deficiency (may occur due to thiaminases in raw fish/shellfish) causes anorexia, weight loss, fixed dilated pupils, periodic opisthotonus, coma and weight loss
What is the function of cobalamin (vitamin B12)? How is it obtained and stored? What does deficiency cause?
Required for DNA synthesis and fatty acid production. Synthesised by microorganisms and stored in liver.
Deficiency causes anaemia and nervous insufficiencies
What type of lining does each compartment of the ruminant forestomach have?
Rumen - papillae
Reticulum - honeycomb folds
Omasum - sheet-like folds
Abomasum - glandular
How much gas is produced in the bovine rumen?
0.5-1litre per minute
What effect does a high-roughage diet have on fatty acid production in the rumen? On milk composition?
Increased acetyic and butyric acid produced, and increased milk fat
What effect does a high-concentrate diet have on fatty acid production in the rumen? On milk composition?
Increased proprionic acid produced, and increased milk sugar and protein
What is the function of vitamin A? How is it obtained?
Derived from plant carotenoids
Required for dim light vision, bone development and epithelial maintenance
When in lactation is peak yield? When is peak voluntary food intake?
Peak yield 5-7 weeks
Peak VFI 10-12 weeks
What amount of dry matter does a lactating dairy cow consume daily?
3% of bodyweight
Targets:
Lactation period?
Open period?
Dry period?
Lactation period: 43 weeks
Open period: 12 weeks
Dry period: 40 days
How long is gestation in the cow?
40 weeks
What yield would you expect from a grass-fed cow? How much concentrate is required to supplement this?
Grass is maintenance +20 litres
Each 1kg concentrate adds 3 litres to yield
What is a good composition for a dairy cow diet?
50% or more fibres longer than 5cm
30% protein
5% or less fat
Name FIVE milk-borne zoonoses
Salmonella
Campylobacter jejuni
E. coli
Yersinia enterocolitica
Listeria monocytogenes
When do most hens lay? How many eggs per year?
Lay starts at 18 weeks of age and peaks 6-7 weeks later
Average hen lays 270 eggs/year
When do broiler chickens reach slaughterweight?
5 weeks
When is beak trimming permissible in hens?
Aged 5-10 days, if there is a demonstrable flock pecking problem
Name the FIVE regions of the hen reproductive tract and their function
Ovary (makes oocytes)
Infundibulum (site of fertilisation)
Magnum (adds albumin)
Isthmus (adds egg membrane)
Uterus (adds shell and pigment)
What is the gestation period in the dog? Cat?
Dog 63d, Cat 65d
What FIVE diseases are dogs routinely vaccinated against?
Distemper
Hepatitis
Parvovirus
Parainfluenza
Leptospirosis
What FOUR diseases are cats routinely vaccinated against?
Panleucopaenia/parvovirus (also called feline infectious enteritis)
Feline upper respiratory tract disease (herpesvirus/calicivirus, also called cat 'flu)
Chlamydia
FeLV
What is the gestation period in the sheep?
147 days
What FOUR diseases are lambs routinely vaccinated against?
Clostridia
Pasteurellosis
Erysipelas
Orf (contagious exanthema)
When should sows be inseminated?
8 hours after onset of oestrus, and again 8 hours later
What is the composition of cows' milk? Sows' milk?
Cows - 4% protein, 4% fat, 4% lactose
Sows - 5% protein, 8% fat, 5% lactose
Targets for pigs:
First litter
Birthweight
Preweaning mortality
Weaning weight
Litters/sow/year
Pigs/litter
First litter aged 12 months
Birthweight 1-2kg
Preweaning mortality <10%
Weaning weight 5-7kg
2.2-2.5 litters/sow/year
10 pigs/litter
How should the environmental temperature in the farrowing house be set?
Sows should be kept below 20 degrees
Pigs should be provided a warm box at 30-32 degrees for the first week of life, decreasing by 1 degree a day thereafter