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58 Cards in this Set

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What is an encomienda?
The ruler of Spain set up this system (encomienda) where Spanish men were each given a Native American village to oversee.
Tribute
Goods, money or labor the villages (encomiendas) to the spaniards who run the village. They were slaves that helped to make the Spanish rich, while they lived in poverty.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo when and what is it?
1945 after the Texas independence when no one could agree on a boundary between Mexico and Texas. It became a war for 2 years where Texas won North Mexico as well. It was stoped with Mexico being forced to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
Texas Independence when and what is it?
1835 settlers in Texas decided to break away from Mexico.
Ejido
Answering the Demand for Land (1917) Haciendas were divided up among small farmers and these farms were called ejidos.
Haciendas
Large ranches
PEMEX
In 1938, the Mexican government decided to nationalize, or establish government control of the oil industry. The agency called PEMEX runs the industry.
Maquiladora
During the 1990's many of Mexico's factories were on the border of the U.S. They were called maquiladoras, a factory that imports duty-free parts from the U.S., to make products that is then exports back across the border.
Diversify
gold and sugar? Please look up and tell me in your "central America and the Carribbean" notes.
What is an encomienda?
The ruler of Spain set up this system (encomienda) where Spanish men were each given a Native American village to oversee.
Chinampas
The land was marsh, so the Aztec built floating gardens called Chinampas, on which they grew crops.
Hieroglyphs
Maya created this written language using symbols (called hieroglyphs). Each glyph represented a syllable.
PRI Political Party
The most powerful political party in Mexico is the Institutional Revolutionary Party or the PRI. This party won every presidential election in Mexico from 1929 to 2000.
Deforestation
The process of cutting down and clearing trees. Issue is in South America.
El Nino
Causes heavy rain. Unusually high air pressure in the South Pacific causes certain winds over the ocean, called trade windes, to die out. Without trade winds, the ocean's sun-warmed surface water flows eatward toward North and South America.....blah, blah, blah...causing heavy rains and flooding in Latin America.
Machu Pichu
Massive stonework buildings of the Inca
Altahualpa
1531, Incan ruler who was defeated by Francisco Pizzaro.
Francisco Pizzaro
Defeated Altahualpa, the Inca ruler, and claimed the empire for Spain.
The Amazon River/Amazon Rainforest
Look at Physiographic Map of Latin America
The Andes Mountains
Look at Physiographic Map of Latin America
Tropical Zone
Most of Latin America falls into the Tropical zone so it is warm year round.
The relationship between Cuba and the Soviet Union
Castro came into office during the "Cold War" and needed a powerful country as a "friend". So they started large scale trading with USSR and getting weapons from them. When Russia fell apart in 1991, Cuba had less power.
What education problem did Castro's government solve in the 1960's
Free Education
Communism
The government plans and controls a country's economy (farms, factories, and businessmen). Cuba and the USSR have been run with communism.
Rio de Janeiro
One of the largest cities in Brazil (San Paulo is the other largest city)
Brasilia
In 1956, Brazil created this as it's new capital. It is 600 miles inland to encourage people to move inland as their Atlantic coast is overcrowded. Eventually it too was overcrowded.
Who is Montezuma II?
Aztec Ruler. He ruled 5-6 million people. He naively welcomed Hernan Cortes to stay in his palace. This led to his defeat. After a week Cortes took Montezuma as a prisoner. In 1519 he was defeated by the spanish solder Herman Cortes.
Hernan Cortes
Defeated Montezuma II, the Aztec Ruler.
Alahualpa
Inca Ruler defeated by Francisco Pizzaro in 1531
Father Miguel Hidalgo
September 16, 1810, in the village of Dolores, rang the church bells to gather the local farmers and urged them to fight against the Spanish for independence. This speech was known as the "Grito de Dolores" (cry of Dolores)
Why was it so easy for Cortes to defeat Montezuma?
1. Native American Allies
2. Superior weapons: steel swords, armor, guns, cannons and horses.
Francisco Madero
During the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)almost every part of Mexico had their own army of rebels with a particular goal. One these first revolutionary leaders was a wealthy rancher named Francisco Madero who eventually became president in 1911. His key issue was free and honest elections. Many other leaders focused on Land ownership.
Diego Rivera
One of Mexico's most celebrated artists. His historical murals decorate the walkways of the National Palace of Mexico.
Vicente Fox
Elected December 1, 2000. He became the first president to Mexico in 70 years that was not a member of the PRI.
Fidel Castro
A young lawyer who took over Cuba in July of 1959. He created a communist regime and is still the dictator running that country.
What are the main industries that drive the economy of Mexico?
Petroleum, tourism( one of the biggest vacation spots is Cancun down on the Yucatan Peninsula)
What are the main industries that drive the economy of Central America?
Fishing, coffee, bananas, manufacturing, tourism
What are the main industries that drive the economy of West Indies?
Tourism. 8 million tourists come every year.
What are the main industries that drive the economy of South America?
Minerals (gold, etc.), Agriculture, and manufacturing
Peninsulares
Ruling class made up of Spanish officials born in Spain.
Criollos
Second class people who were born in Mexico but whose parents were born in spain.
Mestizos
Person of Spanish or Native American ancestry
Mullattos
person of Spanish AND Native American ancestry
Native Americans/Africans
lowest in the class system
Ethnicity
Grouping based on a common cultural heritage, distinguished by customs, nationality or race (spanish, black, korean, etc)
Annual Income Per Person
The average income earned per person per year.
Literacy Rate
The percent of the adult population that is able to read and write
Urban Populations
People who live in cities
Rural Populations
People who live in the countryside away from cities.
Demographics
Data pertaining to the characteristics of human populations such as ethnicities, languages,and literacy rate.
What are the achievements and characteristics of the Aztec?
Location: Modern Mexico City, which was Lake Texcoco, on an island city.

Agriculture: The land was marsh, so the Aztec built floating gardens, called CHINAMPAS on which they grew crops.

Acheivements: They were powerful warriors, they found religious honor in battles. They were very religious.

Decline: 1519. A Spanish soldier, Herman Cortes, a guest of Montezuma II took him as a prisioner and claimed the Aztec Empire for Spain and renamed it New Spain.
What are the achievements and characteristics of the Inca?
Location: Andes Mountains Peru, Columbia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and northwestern Argentina.

Agriculture: They built stone Terraces and created irrigation canals allowing them to grow several types of crops.

Achievements: Stone roads, Runners to carry messages (early version of fedex) up to 180 miles a day, MACHU PICHU

Decline: 1531 A Spanish soldier, Francisco Pizzaro defeated Inca ruler, Atahualpa and claimed the empire for Spain.
What are the achievements and characteristics of the Maya Civilizations?
Location: Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Belize.

Agriculture: Slash and Burn That way the area would grow back and the soil could regain it's nutrients.

Acheivements: Concept of Zero, Calendar, Heiroglyphics

Decline: AD 900 reason unknown. The cities were abandoned and they spread out. Many still live in Central America today. Yeah! They lived Good for the Mighty Mayans! Woo Hoo! Way to stay alive!
Essay Question: Be able to write a nice very long paragraph about this topic:

How has coloniolism impacted the social structure of Latin America?
1
Essay Question: Be able to write a nice very long paragraph about this topic:

How has the Panama Canal helped with global trade?
It allows people and products to move between the Pacific Ocean and the Carribean Sea instead of having to go all the way around South America through storms.
Essay Question: Be able to write a nice very long paragraph about this topic:

How have humans created a global concern in the Amazon Rain Forest?
1
Essay Question: Be able to write a nice very long paragraph about this topic:
1
Essay Question: Be able to write a nice very long paragraph about this topic:

How does the environment/geography of a country play a role in their economy? Give at least two examples.
1