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30 Cards in this Set

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Initially ME Oil was
foreign owned.
1977
Another price hike, after 1973’s.
1981-82
Oil glut, supply exceeds demand
Cartel
Combination of firms working together to limit competition.
Immigration
Migration of workers from poor countries to wealthy ones. Palestinians.
Nationalization
Oil claimed by home countries. Iran (1950s); Libya; Iraq; Syria (1970s).
OPEC (1960)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Example of cartel.
Sets production quotas for member countries.
OPEC Oil Embargo (1973)
Result of Yom Kippur War:
OPEC wouldn’t sell to pro-Israel.
Huge revenues for oil countries. Inflation resulted in Europe, US and Japan.
Unequal Distribution of Oil Reserves
Much oil: Saudi Arabia; Iran; Iraq; Libya; Kuwait; other Persian Gulf nations. Little oil: Egypt; Turkey.
Uses of Oil Revenue
Improved living conditions, providing health & education.
Building projects.
Weapons purchases.
Support of terrorist organizations.
Ayatollah
Highest level of Shiite religious leader.
Hadith
Book has guides for community.
Imam
Shiite religious leader.
Koran
Book in which God is revealed to Muhammad.
Shari’a
Shiite book has commentaries on Koran.
Shiite
Use Koran & way of Ali
Sunnah
Sunni book has acts & sayings of Muhammad
Sunni
Use Koran & Sunnah
Ulema
Experts in Islamic law & teaching
Bazaar (marketplace)
In a city, where goods exchange
Bedouin
Nomad that dwells in dessert.
City dweller
Professionals; skilled workers; factory workers.
Fellahin
Egyptian peasants.
Nomads
2 types: pastoralists; bedouin.
Family>Clan>Tribe
Pastoralist
Nomad that raises livestock.

Berbers; Kurds.
Sheik
Arab chief in Nomad groups.
Villagers
Over 50% of pop.
Near water source.
Land not owned by peasants, but attempted.

Status determined by land ownership & education.
Council of Elders.
Traditional Family Life
Patriarchal, male-dominated, Extended.
Bride’s Wealth
Provided by groom’s father, goes to bride’s family.
Courtship
Restricted, marraiges arranged.