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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the course of a typical acute infection:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. establishment of infection
2. non-adaptive phase kicks in after pathogens exceed threshold level and get induction of adaptive response
3. adaptive immune response (pathogen is cleared)
4. immunological memory
what are the 4 broad categories of human pathogens:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. bacteria
2. fungi
3. viruses
4. parasites
extracellular pathogens are accessible to soluble molecules that include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. antibodies
2. complement
3. antimicorbial peptides
4. phagocytosis
intracellular pathogens are kill by:
1.
2.

(hint: method)
1. destruction of the infected cell
2. respiratory burst
exotoxin or endotoxin release causes ... to secrete ... causing a local or systemic reaction
phagocytes
cytokines
if skin or mucosal layer is compromised allowing pathogens in, the local infection immediately induces the ... response and pathogens are engulfed and destroyed by ... and ...
innate immune
neutrophils
macrophages
inflammation results from the induction of ... and ... in the early induced response by ... and ...
cytokines
acute phase proteins
macrophage
complement
... immunity is engaged only when the inflammatory process has failed to eliminate the pathogen
adaptive
Early induced response/inflammation are activated a ... after appearance of infection
Adaptive response generated ... after initial infection
few hours
several days to weeks
Failure to eliminate pathogens results in the ... and is initiated in ... tissues
adaptive response
secondary lymphoid
Cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems work ... to clear the infection
collaboratively
... is the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system, towards the site of tissue damage or infection
extravasation
what are the steps of extravasation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. rolling adhesion
2. tight binding
3. diapedesis
4. migration
in extravasation, what happens in the following steps:
1. rolling adhesion
2. tight binding
3. diapedesis
4. migration
1. weak binding of L-selectins that are found on lymphocytes
2. LFA-1 (lymphocytes) and ICAMs (endothelium) binding
3. lymphocytes cross the blood vessel wall helped by adhesion molecules and chemokines
4. lymphocytes move into T cell zones
Effector cells change their surface molecules:

once the cell becomes an effector T cell their surface expression of ...(adhesion molecule) decreases
instead the effector T cells express ..., an integrin that binds ... on ... of ... in infected and inflamed tissues
L-selectin
VLA-4
VCAM-1
endothelial cells
blood vessels
the CD45?? isotype is expressed on naïve T cells

the CD45?? isotype is expressed on effector cells
RA
Ro
Within ... days of an antigen appearing in a lymph node, it has been bound by its ...
... days after the arrival of the antigen, ... cells emigrate from the lymph node into the periphery
two
naïve antigen specific T cell
Five
activated effector
choose (protective immunity; immunological memory; primary immune response)
1. adaptive immune response to an initial exposure to antigen
2. resistance to specific infection that follows infection or vaccination
3. if an antigen is encountered more than once, the immune response to each subsequent encounter is speedier and more effective
1. primary immune response
2. protective immunity
3. immunological memory