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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the building blocks used in anabolism:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. nucleotides
2. amino acids
3. sugars
4. fatty acids
in anabolism, what are the final products:
1.
2.
3.
4.
proteins
nucleic acids
polysaccharides
lipids
NADPH is produced in what cycle? and is in the (oxidized/reduced) form
TCA
reduced
NADP+ is in the (oxidized/reduced) form
oxidized
NADPH is used to make ... during ... using the electron transport chain
ATP
oxidatvie phosphorylation
Hexose MonoPhosphate Shunt or Pentose-phoshosphate Pathway are used for:
1.
2.
and create ...
Reductive Biosynthesis
Drug Detoxification
NADPH
NADH/NADPH are reducing equivalents which means they ...
donate electrons
NAD+/NADP+ are oxidizing agents which means they ...
accept electrons
energy produced going from ATP → ADP + Pi is ... and going from ADP → AMP + Pi the energy produces is about ...
~7Kcal/mole
~7Kcal/mole
what is happening in the first stage of metabolism:
breakdown of large macromolecules into simple subunits:
amino acids
simple sugars
fatty acids
what is happening in the second stage of metabolism:
breakdown of simple subunits to acetyl CoA and production of limited amts of ATP and NADH
what is happening in the third stage of metabolism:
complete oxidation of acetyl CoA to H2O and CO2 and production of large amts of ATP and NADH
what is happening in RBC's in the insulin world (this is just after eating)
glucose -> pyruvate
what is happening in the brain in the insulin world (this is just after eating)
glucose -> CO2 + ATP
what is happening in the muscle in the insulin world (this is just after eating)
glucose -> CO2 + ATP
glucose -> glycogen (energy storage)
amino acids -> protein
what is happening in the fat in the insulin world (this is just after eating)
glucose -> CO2 + ATP
glucose -> fat
fatty acids -> fat
what is happening in the liver in the insulin world (this is just after eating)
glucose -> CO2 + ATP
glucose -> glycogen
amino acids -> pyruvate -> acetyl CoA -> CO2 + ATP
fatty acid synthesis
cholesterol synthesis
what do chylomicrons do:
transport dietary cholesterol and triacylglycerols
what is glycolysis:
oxidation of glucose to either lactate or pyruvate
what is glycogenesis:
formation of glycogen from glucose
what is glycogenolysis:
breakdown of glycogen stores to produce glucose
what is gluconeogenesis:
generation of glucose from pyruvate
what is happening in RBC's in the glucagon world (post-absorptive state)
glucose -> pyruvate
what is happening in the brain in the glucagon world (post-absorptive state)
glucose -> CO2 + ATP
what is happening in muscle in the glucagon world (post-absorptive state)
fatty acids -> CO2 + ATP
ketone bodies -> CO2 + ATP
protein (muscle) -> amino acids
what is happening in adipose in the glucagon world (post-absorptive state)
stored fat -> CO2 + ATP
stored fat -> glycerol (then exported)
stored fat -> fatty acid (then exported)
what is happening in liver in the glucagon world (post-absorptive state)
fatty acid (from adipose) -> CO2 + ATP
fatty acid (from adipose) -> ketone bodies (that are taken up by muscle)
amino acid -> glucose
lactate (from rbc) -> glucose
during starvation state, protein is spared and the brain uses ... for fuel
ketone bodies
the insulin world is (phosphorylated/dephosphorylated)
dephosphorylated
the glycogen world is (phosphorylated/dephosphorylated)
phosphorylated
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) is when ...
you first wake up and the energy required to maintain life
what is Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
amount of energy expended while at rest
how many calories are in 1 gram of EtOH
7