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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the first step in protein synthesis?
transcription
what is the second step in protein synthesis?
translation
where does translation occur?
cytoplasm
what is the genetic code?
used to translate the “language” of nucleic acids into the “language” of proteins
what is the number of nucleotides that code for an amino acid?
3
why is the genetic code said to be degenerate?
because most of the amino acids are represented by more than one DNA coding sequence
how many possible codons are there?
64
what do stop codons do and how many are there?
they signal the end of translation

3
what amino acid is always the first to be incorporated in proteins?
methionine (met)
the genetic code (differs/is universal) among all living organisms
universal
codons are read sequentially on mRNA starting at the ... prime end beginning with the ... codon which has the sequence ...
5
start
AUG
codons are read ... prime to ... prime and end at the ... codon
5
3
stop
the three stop codons are ...
UGA
UAG
UAA
a change in a single nucleotide in the DNA results in a ... in the mRNA sequence, possibly changing a codon
single change
reading frame mutations are caused by ...
insertions, deletions, frameshift mutations
how many possible reading frames are there in mRNA?
3
translation occurs in the ... in association with ...
cytoplasm
ribosomes
in translation, ... contains the genetic code, ... transports the appropriate amino acid and ... brings the nucleotide language and amino acid language together to form a protein
mRNA
tRNA
ribosome
what do ribosomes consist of?
consist of protein and rRNA
what are the prokaryotic ribosomal subunits? and they come together to form ...s
30s and 50s
70
what are the subunits of eukaryotic ribosomes? and what do they come together to form?
40s and 60s
80s
what is Nmd3p?
the G protein-dependent transporter that transports the 60s subunit out of the nucleus
transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain within a ribosome
tRNA (transfer RNA)
specific amino acid
3'end
5'end
anticodon
codon
identify the labeled structures:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
on the tRNA, what nucleotide is usually on the 5'end?
G
on the tRNA, what nucleotide sequence is usually at the 3' end?
CCA-3'
to what side does the amino acid attach to on the tRNA?
3'
d loop
t loop
anticodon loop
name the labeled loops?
a.
b.
c.
what is non-standard base pairing in the 3rd position of the codon in mRNA (some anti-codons can bind to more than one codon)
Wobble Phenomenon
in addition to binding to cytosine, guanosine can pair with ...
uracil
one of the many modified bases in tRNA that is especially promiscuous in base pairing
inosine
a tRNA is said to be “charged”
when it has ... attached
amino acid
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase does what?
attaches amino acid to tRNA
how does aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase know what amino acid to attach?
uses anticodon as recognition
the attaching of an amino acid to tRNA (requires/does not require) ATP
requires
step 1. of formation of aminoacyl-tRNA:

amino acid's ... group reacts with ... forming ... complex
carboxyl
ATP
enzyme-aminoacyl-AMP
what is an aminoacyl-tRNA?
tRNA that has an amino acid covalently attached to its 3’-end
the second step in the formation of aminoacyl-tRNA involves the activated amino acid being transferred to 2’ or 3’ hydroxyl group on the ribose sugar of the ... prime end of the tRNA forming an aminoacyl-tRNA ... bond
3
ester
translation of protein involves 3 steps:
a.
b.
c.
initiation
elongation
termination
first step in eukaryotic initiation involves formation of ...
initiation complex
eukaryotic pre-initiation complex consists of ...
Methionyl-tRNAiMet
eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)
small (40S) ribosomal subunit
what is an aminoacyl-tRNA?
tRNA that has an amino acid covalently attached to its 3’-end
the second step in the formation of aminoacyl-tRNA involves the activated amino acid being transferred to 2’ or 3’ hydroxyl group on the ribose sugar of the ... prime end of the tRNA forming an aminoacyl-tRNA ... bond
3
ester
translation of protein involves 3 steps:
a.
b.
c.
initiation
elongation
termination
first step in eukaryotic initiation (preparing the tRNA) involves formation of ...
pre-initiation complex
eukaryotic pre-initiation complex consists of ...
Methionyl-tRNA(met)
eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)
small (40S) ribosomal subunit
mRNA initiation factors are ...?
cap binding protein (CBP) or eIF4E
poly-A binding protein (PABP)
what does the poly-A binding protein (PABP) do?
circularize some mRNAs which stimulates or inhibits translation
at what point does the small ribosomal subunit bind to large ribosomal subunit?
after start codon is found and initiation factors are released
what is the funciton of the cap recognition complex?
targets mRNA to the pre-initiation complex
3 binding sites available in the complete ribosome are:
a.
b.
c.
P site (peptidyl)
A site (aminoacyl)
E site (exit)
put the following in order:
a. initiation factors dissociate
b. initiation factor associate
c. large ribosomal unit binds
d. initiator tRNA moves along mRNA searching for start codon
e. mRNA binding fo tRNA
b, e, d, a, c
eIF2 major regulator of initiation step is is (inactivated/activated) by phosphorylation and phosphorylation of eIF2 can be induced by ...
inactivated
starvation, heat shock, or viral infection
what is the role of insulin in regards to eIF4E (mRNA cap binding protein)?
stimulates protein synthesis
phosphorylation and activation
eIF2 (is/is not) a rate limiting step?
is
Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter (VWM) is a degenerative brain disease that involves rapid deterioration of white matter (myelin) following febrile infections or minor head trauma. it is caused by mutations within two subunits of ...
eIF2B