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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fatty acids are synthesized mainly in the ... but can also be synthesized and ... tissue or ... tissue
liver
adipose
mammary
dietary ... serves as the major source of ...
glucose
carbon
glucose must first be converted to ... which provides the 2-carbon units that condense to form a fatty acid chain
acetyl CoA
a. pyruvate dehydrogenase
b. acetyl CoA
c. citrate
d. citrate
e. citrate lyase
f. acetyl CoA
identify the following:
a. (enzyme)
b. (product)
c. (product)
d. (product)
e. (enzyme)
f. (product)
... cannot cross mitochondrial membrane and must be converted into ... first
citrate
... continuously synthesized and transported out of mitochondria into cytosol through ... regulation
citrate
reciprocal
citrate is formed by the condensation of ... and ... this condensation reduces the levels of ... in the mitochondria, thus driving pyruvate dehydrogenase to make more ...
acetyl-CoA
OAA
acetyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA
describe the recycling of oxaloacetate after citrate is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and OAA:
OAA is converted into malate and then finally back to pyruvate
NADPH is required for fatty acid synthesis and is generated through 2 pathways:
1.
2.
pentose phosphate pathway
by malic enzyme during the recycling of OAA
insulin activates ... which drives mitochondrial formation of acetyl CoA
pyruvate dehydrogenase
insulin induces synthesis of ... and ... both increase NADPH levels
malic enzyme
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
insulin induces ... which increases cytosolic levels of acetyl CoA and recycles oxaloacetate
citrate lyase
cytosolic acetyl CoA converted to ... which serves as the immediate donor of 2-carbon units that are added to the growing fatty acid chain
malonyl CoA
conversion of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA requires:
1.
2.
3.
4.
acetyl CoA carboxylase
biotin
CO2
ATP
the conversion of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA is heavily ... and is a rate ... step
regulated
limiting
... sequentially adds 2-carbon units from malonyl CoA to the growing fatty acyl chain to form ... (C16:0)
fatty acid synthase
palmitate
fatty acid synthase complex involves ... derived from the vitamin ... and ...
phospho-pantetheine
pantothenic acid
an acyl carrier protein (ACP)
fatty acid synthase is a single enzyme consisting of a ... of 2 large polypeptide chains containing several functional domains
homodimer
acetyl and malonyl attach to the ACP phosphopantetheinyl sulfhydral group, then condense to form a 4 carbon ... chain.
alpha-keto acyl
in the fatty acid synthase reaction, ... provided the reducing equivalents to drive this elongation of the original acetyl group by 2 carbons.
NADPH
in the fatty acid synthase reaction after reduction, in each subsequent round of elongation, a new ... group attaches to the FAS complex and condenses with the newly forming fatty acid chain.
malonyl
the elongation of fatty acid chain occurs via 4 recurring reactions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. condensation
2. reduction
3. dehydration
4. reduction
the end product of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex is ...
palmitate (C16:0)
palmitate is activated forming ...
palmityl CoA
palmityl CoA is then used, along with ... and ... to form longer chain fatty acids within the ...
malonyl CoA
NADPH
endoplasmic reticulum
desaturation of fatty acids most commonly involves the placement of a double bond between carbons ... and ... and requires:
1.
2.
3.
4.
9
10
1. O2
2. NADH
3. cytochrome b5
4. desaturase enzyme
there are three main families of unsaturated fatty acids:
1.
2.
3.
omega 3
omega 6
omega 9
omega fatty acids are named by the double bonds are in association with the ... end
methyl
... is an omega-6 essential fatty acid
linoleic acid
... is an omega-3 essential fatty acid
alpha-linolenic acid
these fatty acids are essential because mammals lack the ability to introduce double bonds in fatty acids beyond carbon ... and ... because they lack the ... enzyme
9
10
desaturase
essential fatty acids are converted into ... and other ...
prostaglandins
eicosanoids
the omega-6 fatty acids ... and ... are precursors for prostaglandins and other eicosanoids and are essential for ...
linoleic acid
arachidonic acid
development brain, eyes, dermal support, renal function and parturition
omega-6 fatty acids from from ... oils
plant
omega-6 fatty acids are (pro/anti) -inflammatory agents and omega-3 fatty acids are (pro/anti) -inflammatory agents
pro
anti
identify some sources for omega-3 fatty acids:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cold water fish (like salmon)
Flaxseed
Eggs
Walnuts
Grass-fed animals
name 3 omega-3 fatty acids:
1.
2.
3.
alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3)
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5)
docosahexanoic acid (DHA, 22:6)
omega 3 fatty acids decrease risk of ... improve ... and learning and raise ...DL and lower ...DL
heart disease
memory
H
L
symptoms of omega-6 fatty acid deficiency:
1.
2.
3.
4.
growth retardation
skin lesions
reproductive failure
fatty liver
symptoms of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency:
1.
2.
3.
learning deficiencies
impaired visual acuity depression
the first step in synthesis of triglycerides is generation of ... from ... via ...
glycerol 3-phosphate
glucose
dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)
step 2 in triglyceride synthesis is ... with ATP and ... forming a fatty acyl CoA
fatty acid activation
fatty acyl CoA synthetase
step 3 in triglyceride synthesis: ... reacts with fatty acyl CoA forming ... which then dephosphorylates forming ...
glycerol 3-phosphate
phosphatidic acid
diacylglycerol (DAG)
the 4th step in triglyceride synthesis involves the addition of a third and final fatty acyl CoA, forming a ...
triacylglycerol
in step 5 in triglyceride synthesis, the triglyceride incorporated into ... particles or stored as adipose
VLDL
VLDL stands for ...
Very Low Density Lipoprotein
fatty acids for VLDL synthesis in the liver, are obtained form ... or synthesized from ...
blood
glucose
the function of the VLDL is to transport ... to ... and ...
triglycerides
muscle
adipose