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30 Cards in this Set

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in cellular ion gradients, which ion is the only one with higher concentrations inside the cell? (all the others have higher concentrations outside the cell)
k⁺
which side of a cell is typically more negative?
the inside
what does this describe:

spontaneous movement of molecules from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration (“downhill”, movement along a concentration gradient)
simple diffusion
what are the molecules involved in simple diffusion:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1. O2
2. CO2
3. H20
4. ethanol
5. steroid hormones
6. hydrophobic vitamins
the following describes what:

transmembrane protein creates a water-filled pore through which ions and other small hydrophilic molecules can pass by diffusion
facilitated diffusion
in facilitated diffusion transmembrane proteins have channels that are regulated or ... to control amount of diffusion allowed across membrane
“gated”
the below describes what:

small signaling molecule (or ligand) binds to a channel, creating a conformational change that “opens” the channel
ligand-gated ion channels
... is an extracellular ligand that opens Na+ channels in neurons to initiate a nerve impulse
Acetylcholine
... is an extracellular ligand that opens Cl- channels to inhibit creation of a nerve impulse
GABA
examples of intracellular ligands are:
1.
2.
3.
1. cAMP (olfaction)
2. cGMP (vision)
3. ATP opens Cl- and HCO3- channels
stereocilia of hair cells in the cochlea get distorted or bent by sound waves which
opens Na+ channels to create nerve impulse that brain interprets as a sound

this is an example of ...
mechanically-gated ion channels
Stretch receptors in tendons and muscles are examples of ...
mechanically-gated ion channels
in ... some channels open in response to local changes in charge across the plasma membrane

2 types of cells that do this are:
1.
2.
voltage-gated ion channels
muscle
neuron
what kind of transport is this and what is happening with the transport protein?
passive transport
conformational change
... transport is against the concentration gradient and requires ...
active
ATP
what are the following:
Na+/K+ ATPase
H+/K+ ATPase
Ca2+ ATPase
transmembrane transporters that possess ATPase activity
... is found in almost every cell and uses ⅓ of the cell’s supply of ATP. it pumps out ... Na+ for every ... K+ it pumps in
Na+/K+ ATPase
3
2
why is Na+/K+ ATPase important?
1.
2.
3.
1. establishes a net charge across the plasma membrane called
2. helps to maintain osmotic balance
3. gradient of Na+ ions harnessed to provide energy to drive several secondary active transporters
the interior of the cell being more negatively charged with respect to the exterior is known as ...
resting membrane potential
... uses the downhill flow of one ion to pump some other molecule or ion against its concentration gradient
driving ion is usually ...

the pumped molecule can move in same direction ... as ... or opposite direction ... as ...
coupled or secondary active transport
Na+
symport
Na+
antiport
Na+
where would you find Na+/glucose transporter (a symport) and why?
in intestinal epithelium and kidney tubules ensures glucose is transported back into the bloodstream
where would you find amino acid symporters.
kidneys and in synaptic clefts
special term used to describe the diffusion of water through a cell membrane is known as ...
osmosis
osmosis can include facilitated diffusion through water channels called ...
aquaporins
... solutions have a concentration of water that is greater outside the cell due to lower solute concentration
Hypotonic
... solutions have a concentration of water that is lower outside the cell due to higher solute concentration
Hypertonic
... solutions are where concentration of water and total solute are equal inside and outside the cell
Isotonic
when a cell shrinks and shrivels it is called ...
crenation
cystic fibrosis is a ... channel disease where there is a mutation in ... that results in defective ... ion transport
Chloride
CFTR gene (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)
Cl-
CF is the most common lethal inherited disease of ... (1 in 2500) where the average life expectancy is 37 years.
lung disease responsible for ... of mortality and the
incidence of heterozygous carriers: 1 in ...
Caucasians
95%
25