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22 Cards in this Set

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... is the mechanism by which a cell transports proteins to the appropriate positions within the cell or outside of it
protein targeting/sorting
protein targeting/sorting is guided by ... within the polypeptide chain itself
targeting signals
all proteins have ... that is a short amino acid sequence at the N-terminal end of a polypeptide chain that acts as a postal code for the target organelle
signal peptide
... are separate portions of the peptide chain that are brought together when the protein folds and act to target proteins to specific cellular locations
signal patch
identify whether the protein for the below destination is translated on RER or free ribosome:

secretory vesicles
nucleus
mitochondria
plasma membrane
peroxisomes
lysosomes
secretory vesicles = RER
nucleus = free
mitochondria = free
plasma membrane = RER
peroxisomes = free
lysosomes = RER
in the secretory pathway, proteins go from ... to the ... then they go to one of 3 destinations:
1.
2.
3.
RER
golgi complex
plasma membrane
lysosome
secreted
this kind of protein secretion is unregulated and is direct to the cell membrane for immediate exocytosis
continuous
this kind of protein secretion is regulated and triggered by an external signal
regulated
in regulated secretion, proteins are packaged into ... coated transport vesicles that fused to form ...
clathrine
condensing vesicles
condensing vesicles are emptied of their content and return in transport vesicles to the Golgi, This concentrates the secretory content and ...
maintains amount of golgi membrane
in N-linked glycosylation, sugar is added to NH2 on ...
asparagine
Lysosomal enzymes are ... glycoproteins (where is the sugar linkage)
N linked
Phosphotransferase in the (trans/cis) Golgi compartment attaches phosphate to ... because it recognizes the ... that it is attached to
cis
mannose 6
acid hydrolase
M6P is the routing signal for ... and lysosomal proteins are transported to primary lysosomes by a ... system.
This transport occurs at the ...
lysosomes
mannose-6-phosphate receptor
trans golgi
lysosome ph is ... and they contain more than 40 ...
5
acid hydrolases
I-cell disease is caused by a deficiency of the ability to ...
phosphorylate mannose
what are the 2 types of lysosomes:
1.
2.
primary lysosome
secondary lysosome
(primary/secondary) lysosomes are located near the Golgi complex; contains hydrolytic enzymes but has not yet began digestive process.
primary
(primary/secondary) lysosomes contain heterogeneous material in matrix (substances being digested).
secondary
... are large vacuoles containing undigested (undigestible) material; become lipofuscin or age pigments which accumulate in certain cells.
residual bodies
... are finely granular yellow brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion
lipofuscin
the function of lysosomes is to ...
break down most biological macromolecules into molecules useful to the cell