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36 Cards in this Set

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there are 3 forms of endocytosis:
1.
2.
3.
1. phagocytosis
2. pinocytosis
3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
in the process of phagocytosis, what gets ingested:
bacteria
foreign bodies
cell debris
what types of cells perform phagocytosis:
1.
2.
3.
1. macrophages
2. neutrophils
3. dendritic cells
briefly describe phagocytosis:
plasma membrane evaginates (pseudopod formation) which involves reorganization of actin and myosin cytoskeletal components
describe Phagocytosis of a Bacterium by a Macrophage:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. attachment and activation of surface receptors
2. actin rearrangement and engulfment
3. formation of phagolysosome
4. degradation
lysosomes have 40 ... enzymes that are only fully active at pH 4.8
hydrolytic
lysosomal enzymes synthesized in the RER specifically targeted to lysosomes with ...
mannose-6-phosphate tag
what are the 5 types of hydrolytic enzymes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1. lypases
2. proteases
3. nucleases
4. acid hydrolases
5. carbohydrases
I-Cell Disease (“I”=inclusion) is caused by a genetic defect in ... resulting in the ... never reaching the lysosme
M6P phosphotransferase
lysosomal enzymes
defects in metabolism of sphingolipids cause an accumulation of ... in lysosomes
lipid
what are the clinical manifestations of I-cell disease:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1. developmental delay, growth failure
2. inguinal or umbilical hernias
3. skeletal abnormalities
4. restricted joint movement
5. coarse facial features
6. recurrent respiratory tract infections
7. congestive heart failure
lipid storage diseases mainly effect:
1.
2.
3.
4.
nervous system
liver
spleen
bone marrow
what is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis
phagocytosis is specific and regulated process while pinocytosis is nonspecific
pinocytosis involves the process of ... of the cell membrane where ... forms involving the reorganization of actin
evagination
pseudopod
the selective uptake of specific macromolecules is called ...
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
... involves invagination of plasma membrane and pinching off to form vesicles
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
there are 2 main types of Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis:
1.
2.
1. clathrin-mediated
2. caveolin-mediated/clathrin-independent
Various Ligands Use Receptor Mediated Endocytosis to Enter Cells such as: (only need to name a few)
LDL
transferrin
transcobalamin
immunoglobulins
insulin
glucagon
luteinizing hormone
prolactin
EGF
nerve growth factor
growth hormone
thyroid hormone
calcitonin
PDGF
catecholamines
viruses, toxins
in clathrin-mediated endocytosis receptors located in specialized regions of the plasma membrane called ...
clathrin-coated pits
in clathrin-mediated endocytosis ... binding to receptor causes assembly of ... and inward budding of a clathrin-coated vesicle
ligand
clathrin cage
the key players in clathrin-mediated endocytosis are:
1.
2.
3.
1. clathrin
2. adaptin (AP2)
3. dynamin
... receptor binding stimulates the attachment of clathrin.
adaptin
... acts as a collar constriction
dynamin
clathrin cage dissociates to allow vesicles to fuse and form ...
early endosomes
the proton pumps maintain pH 6 in the ...
early endosome
pH continues to drop to 5-6 and degradation begins in the ...
Late Endosomes
whorls or vesicles may form within the late endosome that
eventually fuses with ...
lysosome
LDL enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and is clathrin (independent/dependent)

... on LDL particles serves as ligand and early endosomes recycle LDL receptor
dependent
apoB-100
late endosome/lysosome is site of accumulation of free ...
cholesterol
in familial hypercholesterolemia there is a genetic defect in either ... or ... which results in elevated ... due to the inability of cells to uptake LDL and premature cardiovascular disease
LDL receptor
apoB ligand
serum cholesterol
... defect in cholesterol trafficking disease due to mutation in ... where cholesterol accumulates in ... forming distinct whorls creating “foamy” cells
Niemann Pick Disease Type C
NPC1 protein
late endosomes
caveolin-1 protein + (area on membrane)... are responsible for selective uptake of molecules - this kind of endocytosis is called ...
lipid rafts
Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis
... is responsible for transcytosis
Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis
what are the other roles of caveolae and caveolin besides endocytosis:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. Uptake of viruses and bacteria
2. Cholesterol homeostasis
3. Signal transduction
4. Tumorigenesis/tumor suppressor
endocytosis of a molecule on one side of the cell followed by exocytosis of the molecule on the opposite side of the cell
is called ...
Transcytosis
viruses and toxins have several means to gain entry into cells one of these ways is via ... ligands
Opportunistic Endocytic