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12 Cards in this Set

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1917
1. APR: Wilson enters war
2. OCT: Revolution in RUssia
3. NOV: Balfour Declaration
Husayn-McMahon Correspondence 1915-1916
Brit High Comm McMahon and Sharif of Mecca Husayn. Promised to be made caliph and king of Arab lands. Armed revolt against Ottoman and many Arab nationalists saw it as Arab independence was promised.
Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 1916
1. French Zone: Syrian litterl from South of Sidon to Mersin and inland to a line west of Alepp-Dam.
2. British: Baghdad-Basra and Palestine Coast
3. International: Rest of Palestine and Jerusalem
4. Remaining: Indep. under British and French influence
Arab Revolt of 1916 and Arab GOV in Damascus
Arab-Brit joint action. Faysal and Lawrence destroy Hijaz railway and cut off Ott and German Troops from Europe to Arabia.
-Under Allenby, Arabs and British unite and occupy Damascus in Sep. 1918
After Arab revolt...
-French occupy coastal areas incl. Beirut
-Ottomans withdraw from Syria in Nov of 1918
-Arab Govt in Damascus
-Armisitce of Mudros in Oct b/n Turkey and Allies
Arab govt of Faysal in Damascus
-Dual Arab-british military rule in Syria until 1919
-Arab nationalists supported Faysal pro-Ottoman nationals
-Faced w/Anglo-French collusion, Syrian Congress made up of Jews, Mus, Chris. Declared Syrian Indep w/King Faysal in 1920.
How did French react?
-Defeat Syrian army headed by Azmeh and occupy Damascus, king loses rule.
Faysal's eviction
Nominated by British King of Iraq in 1921. His brother Abdallah becomes head of Transjordan.
Achievements of Faysal and Arab governance
-Syria gains independence.
-Called for religious tolerance and accommodated Armenean refugees in Syrian society.
-Arabized education.
King-Crane Commission Jun-Jul of 1919
Visited towns, met with leaders, receivied petitions. Found greater Syria too manifest and too against partiition of Syria and Palestine. Urged to perserve Syrian unity, if partitioned, do so by majority will.
-Syrians would prefer US or UK mandate, no French
-Recommended inclusion of Palestine in a Syrian state and considered Zionism/Jewish immigration as a future problem.
-Ignored by Britain/France
US
-Withdrew from peace conference, rejects membership in L oN. 1st intervention in Middle East, bringing understanding b/n Euro and ME. Peaceful from 1922-1990.
San Remo Agreement, 1920.
-Allied Supreme Council (Britain and France) agreed to France occupying Syria and Lebanon and Britain to Iraq and Palestine, mandate system.
-Mandate incorpiprated treaty of Sevres and approved by L o N. Balfour included in British mandate.