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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-financial compensation
-Germany ordered to pay these through Treaty of Versailles b/c it was though that they (and Austria) were responsible for starting war
-money paid for their damage towards Allied gov'ts for imposing agression upon them
war guilt clause
-article 231 in Treaty of Versailles
-says Germany and Austria were responsible for starting war
-Germans very unhappy with this clause
Treaty of Versailles
-holds Germany responsible for war
-makes Germany reduce army, cut back navy, eliminate air force
-Alsace-Lorraine returned from Germany to France, sections of Prussia go to new Polish state
-German military forced to move westward against France
-German gov't resist treaty would lead to renewal of war
League of Nations
-wanted by Woodrow Wilson
-would prevent future wars and make peace last
Kaiser William II
-hates Serbians
-Kaiser of Germany
-allied with Austria
-believes common loyalty to a monarch is stronger than ethnic kinship
-puts fate of his nation in other hands
George Clemenceau
-premier of France
-leads country to victory after French people suffer a lot from German aggression
-wanted revenge but wanted ot be safe from German aggression
-wants German weapons taken away and wants their money to pay for war
-George's ideas denounced by Wilson b/c ideas are only in France's best interest
-part of Paris Peace Conference
Woodrow Wilson
-U.S. president
-wants peace (Fourteen Points and League of Nations)
-present in Paris Peace Conference
-wants less national weapons and military forces
David LLoyd George
-prime minister of Great Britain
-won "decisive victory" in elections by making Germans pay for the war, which was his approach to peace
-this complicates deliberations of Paris Peace Conference because it opposes French approach to peace (they want national security)
-part of 'Big Four' at Paris Peace Conference
Paris Peace Conference
-decision made to create 'League of Nations' to keep peace and prevent future wars
Fourteen Points
-guiding principles to get peace
-includes open covenants of peace, no secret diplomacy, less national weapons and military forces, each people can have own state
-play upons peoples insecurities (masculinity)
-dehumanize other side
-exagerrate atrocities of other side
-how patriotic are you really?
-getting people to buy war bonds
planned economics
-systems directed by gov't agencies
-set up price, wage, and rent controls
-ration food supplies and materials
-regulate imports and exports and take over transportation systems and industries
-practice of threatening to go to war to achieve one's goals
-diplomacy based off of it-very frightening b/c each nation-state does everything for own self-interest
-leaders think war is acceptable way to preserve national states's power
-peace/end of WWI
mass conscription
-a military draft
-established as regular practice in Western countries before 1914(not in U.S. or U.K.)
-with draft, European armies doubled, Russia has largest military
-with growth of armies, influence of military leaders grows
war of attrition
-war based on wearing other side down with constant attacks and heavy losses
-warfare in trenches, wars now involve movement and maneuver
-very violent, lots of injuries
modern war
-war with use of technology
-no longer swords, now guns, tanks, submarines, airplanes, mustard gas
trench warfare
-fighting from ditches, protected by barbed wire
-during war b/t French and Germans, neither can dislodge each other from trenches
-English Channel to frontiers of Switzerland filled w/ 2 lines of trenches
British and German Naval Rivalry
-British have strong navy, fearful of German navy
-German navy is threat to Britain
-Germany keeps trying to expand navy
A-H's ultimatum
-send demands to Serbia to take responsibility for Black Hand
-supress nationalist groups
-Serbia tries to meet all the demands but there are too many
Franz Ferdinand
-archduke of A-H
-assassinated by Serbian terrorist Princip
Schliefflen Plan
-military plan
-drawn up by General Alfred von Schlieffen
-plan to invade France quickly
-Germany declares war on France b/c they can't just mobilize tropps against Russia
Black Hand
-Serbian terrorist organization that wanted Bosnia free of Austria-Hungary
-member Gavrillo Princip assassinates Franz Ferdinand
-long term cause of WWI
-large national identityunites all Slavs (Russia and Serbia)
-makes A-H paranoid
-Serbia, Yugoslavia, A-H
-region of south-eastern Europe
Triple Entente
-Britain, France, Russia
Triple Alliance
A-H, Italy, Germany
unrestricted submarine warfare
-Germans want to end deadlock, convince Emperor William II that this warfare would starve British into submisssion
-German naval officers wrong, British not forced to surrender
-return of unrestricted submarine warfare brings US into war