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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hague Tribunal
a world court to settle dispute between nations. Couldn't force nations to submit disputes or follow rulings.
strong sense of nationality from Russians, united Slavs.
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. (AKA Triple Alliance)
Britian, france, and Russia (AKA Triple entente)
opposition to all war.(Org. such as the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom promoted this idea)
glorification of the military. (Grew out of Social Darwinism – survival of the fittest)
nonbinding agreement to follow common policies, not as strong as treaty. (In 1904 Britain and France signed one)
Francis Ferdinand
archduke (of austria-hungary) assasinated --> WWI!!
Gavrilo Princip
assasinate archduke ferdinand
Shlieffen Plan
designed so germans could not fight on two fronts. Germany had to defeat France quickly, then it would fight Russia.
Final set of demands (Austria sent Serbia a sweeping ultimatum to avoid war they said Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian officer involved in a murder plot and it must let Austria join investigation to find Ferdinand’s murderer.)--> Austria declared war on Serbia
prepare military forces for war. (Russia began to do this and Germany responded by declaring war)
policy of supporting neither side in war
western front
Germany had hoped to have quick victory on front, but they were wrong. Trench warfare created a stalemate on front.
Germany tried to overwhelm French, but French let out battle cry “They shall not pass” and held strong for 11 months, but it cost more than ½ a million casualties on both sides.
60,000 british soldiers killed in one day and then over next 5 months over 1million soldiers killed w/o either side having winning advantage.
russians suffered worst defeat ever --> retreat --> nnow fighting on Russian soil (not equipped for modern warfare)
Austrians and Germans launchd major offensive on Caporetto italy, as bad as tanneberg was for Russia. Britain and France aided them.
Turkish troops tied down allies -10 months, 10,000 casualties then allies surrendered
TE LAwrence
(AKA Lawrence of Arabia) The British sent him to support revolt Arab revolt. He led guerrilla raids against the Turks, dynamiting bridges, and supply trains. Eventually the Ottoman Empire lost a great deal of land to the Arabs.
a deadlock in which neither side can defeat the other
no mans land
between trenches Empty space filled w/shell holes and destroyed areas.
large gas-filled balloons used for bombing.
U Boats
german subs
group of merchant ships protected by war ships
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russia withdrew from war. Lenin (Russia) signed treaty with Germany, which ended Russia’s participation in WWI. This had an immediate impact on the war. Germany could now concentrate on the western front. 1918 central powers looked ready to achieve breakthrough, that was long awaited.
Woodrow Wilson
freedom of the seas (bc neutral) --> Luisitania
A British ship carrying 128 Americans that was bombed by the Germans, the Germans argued that it was carrying weapons.
Fourteen Points
(a list of his terms for resolving this a future wars) Woodrow Wilson’s speech that states freedom of the seas, free trade, large-scale reduction of arms, and an end to secret treaties. He also favored self-determination. He also urged creation of “general association of nations” to keep peace in the future.
total war
the channeling of a nations entire resources into a war effort
the draft
spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause.
horrible acts against innocent people. (British and French press circulated atrocities about their enemies and often they were greatly exaggerated or even made up.)
the right of the people to decide what type of govt.
agreement to stop the fightting. (German government sought armistice w/allies)
David Lloyd George
British prime minister, who knew that the people demanded harsh treatment for Germany. He said that he would build a post-war Britain “fit for heroes” (a goal that would cost $)
Georges Clemenceau
: AKA “The Tiger” for his fierce anti-German war policy. His chief goal was to weaken Germany so that it could never again threaten France. (President Wilson’s Fourteen Points bored him!)
League of Nations
wilson - collective security
Treaty of Versailles
June 1919, Germans forced to sign treaty drawn up by allies. It forced Germany to assume full blame for the war, imposed HUGE reparations (destruction of war and pensions of millions of allied soldiers), limited size of their military, returned Alsace and Lorraine to France, removed hundreds of square miles of territory from Germany, and stripped Germany of its overseas colonies. Total reparations = 30 billion$. This was the spark that eventually leads to a whole new WW.
worldwide spread diesease, killed 20 million people 2xx the amount the war did.
payment for war damage
collective security
a system in which a group of nations act as one to preserve peace of all.
territories administered by western powers. (included in many of the allies treaties)