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189 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
laudable (adj)

(formal) deserving to be praised or admired, even if not really successful
SYN = commendable

e.g. a laudable aim / attempt

= lobenswert
alter (v)

1) to become different; to make sb/sth different:
e.g. Prices did not alter significantly during 2004
e.g. He had altered so much I scarcely recognized him

2) to make changes to a piece of clothing so that it will fit you better
discard (v) / (n)


1) discard sb/sth (as sth) to get rid of sth that you no longer want or need:
e.g. The room was littered with discarded newspapers
e.g. He had discarded his jacket because of the heat
e.g. 10% of the data was discarded as unreliable
= wegwerfen
= streichen
= verwerfen

2) (in card games) to get rid of a card that you do not want


a person or thing that is not wanted or thrown away, especially a card in a card game
= Ausschuss
vast (adj)
extremely large in area, size, amount, etc.

SYN = huge

e.g. a vast area of forest
e.g. His business empire will be vast
predator (n)

1) an animal that kills and eats other animals:
e.g. the relationship between predator and prey

2) (disapproving) a person or an organization that uses weaker people for their own advantage:
e.g. to protect domestic industry from foreign predators
prey (n)

1) an animal, a bird, etc. that is hunted, killed and eaten by another:
e.g. The lion will often stalk its prey for hours
e.g. birds of prey (= birds that kill for food)

2) a person who is harmed or tricked by sb, especially for dishonest purposes:
e.g. Elderly people are easy prey for dishonest salesmen
carnivore (n)

any animal that eats meat
breakage (n)

1) an object that has been broken:
e.g. The last time we moved house there were very few breakages

2) the act of breaking sth:
e.g. Wrap it up carefully to protect against breakage

= Bruch
= Bruchschaden
dismiss (v)
1) dismiss sb/sth (as sth) to decide that sb/sth is not important and not worth thinking or talking about
SYN = wave aside
e.g. I think we can safely dismiss their objections (=Einsprüche)
e.g. Vegetarians are no longer dismissed as cranks (=Sonderlinge)
e.g. He dismissed the opinion polls as worthless
e.g. The suggestion should not be dismissed out of hand (= without thinking about it)

2) dismiss sth (from sth) to put thoughts or feelings out of your mind:
e.g. Dismissing her fears, she climbed higher
e.g. He dismissed her from his mind

3) dismiss sb (from sth) to officially remove sb from their job
SYN = fire
SYN = sack

e.g. She claims she was unfairly dismissed from her post

4) to send sb away or allow them to leave:
e.g. At 12 o’clock the class was dismissed

5) (law) to say that a trial or legal case should not continue, usually because there is not enough evidence:
e.g. The case was dismissed

6) (in cricket) to end the innings of a player or team
abrasion (n)

1) a damaged area of the skin where it has been rubbed against sth hard and rough:
e.g. He suffered cuts and abrasions to the face
= Schürfung
= Schürfwunde

2) damage to a surface caused by rubbing sth very hard against it:
e.g. Diamonds have extreme resistance to abrasion
= Reibung
= Abnützung
pit (n) / (v)

1) a large deep hole in the ground:
e.g. We dug a deep pit in the yard (=Hof, Garten)
e.g. The body had been dumped in a pit

2) a deep hole in the ground from which minerals are dug out

MINE = coal mine
e.g. He went down the pit (= started work as a miner) when he left school

a small shallow (=flach) hole in the surface of sth, especially a mark left on the surface of the skin by some disease, such as chickenpox

a peach pit

the pits [pl.] (BrE) (NAmE the pit [C]) a place near the track where cars can stop for fuel, new tyres, etc. during a race

= Orchestra Pit

= armpit (=Achselhöhle)

(NAmE) the area of a stock exchange where a particular product is traded:
e.g. the corn pit

verb (-tt-) [vn] [usually passive]:

to make marks or holes on the surface of sth:
e.g. The surface of the moon is pitted with craters
e.g. Scars (=Narben) had pitted his face

= stone
e.g. pitted olives
rule sb/sth out
to state that sth is not possible or that sb/sth is not suitable
SYN = exclude
e.g. Police have not ruled out the possibility that the man was murdered
e.g. The proposed solution was ruled out as too expensive
= ausschliessen
= verwerfen (Hypothese etc.)
carcass (n)

the dead body of an animal, especially of a large one or of one that is ready for cutting up as mea
= Kadaver
paltry (adj)
1) (of an amount) too small to be considered as important or useful
SYN = meagre
e.g. This account offers a paltry 1% return on your investment
e.g. a paltry sum

2) having no value or useful qualities:
e.g. a paltry gesture
outrageous (adj)

1) very shocking and unacceptable
SYN = scandalous
e.g. outrageous behaviour
e.g. ‘That’s outrageous!’ he protested

2) very unusual and slightly shocking:
e.g. an outrageous suggestion
e.g. She says the most outrageous things sometimes
e.g. outrageous clothes
excavation (n)

1) the activity of digging in the ground to look for old buildings or objects that have been buried for a long time

2) a place where people are digging to look for old buildings or objects:
e.g. The excavations are open to the public

3) the act of digging, especially with a machine

= Grabung
= Aushöhlung
= Ausgrabung
= Baugrube

verb = to excavate
heritage (n)

[usually sing.] the history, traditions and qualities that a country or society has had for many years and that are considered an important part of its character:

e.g. Spain’s rich cultural heritage
e.g. The building is part of our national heritage
inducement (n)

inducement (to sb) (to do sth) something that is given to sb to persuade them to do sth

SYN = incentive

e.g. financial inducements to mothers to stay at home
e.g. There is little inducement for them to work harder
e.g. Government officials have been accused of accepting inducements (= bribes) from local businessmen

= Anreiz
= Ansporn
inducement (n)

inducement (to sb) (to do sth) something that is given to sb to persuade them to do sth

SYN = incentive

e.g. financial inducements to mothers to stay at home
e.g. There is little inducement for them to work harder
e.g. Government officials have been accused of accepting inducements (= bribes) from local businessmen

= Anreiz
= Ansporn
object (v)

1) object (to sb/sth) | object (to doing sth / to sb doing sth)

to say that you disagree with, disapprove of or oppose sth:
e.g. Many local people object to the building of the new airport
e.g. If nobody objects, we’ll postpone the meeting till next week
e.g. I really object to being charged for parking
= widersprechen
= einwänden
= Beschwerde einlegen

2) to give sth as a reason for opposing sth
SYN = to protest
e.g. [v that] He objected that the police had arrested him without sufficient evidence

to part company (with/from sb)
1) to leave sb; to end a relationship with sb:
e.g. This is where we part company (= go in different directions)
e.g. The band have parted company with their manager
e.g. The band and their manager have parted company

2) to disagree with sb about sth:
e.g. Weber parted company with Marx ON a number of important issues
pottery vessel (n)
= Keramikgefäss
provenance (n)

(technical) the place that sth originally came from

SYN = origin

e.g. All the furniture is of English provenance
e.g. There’s no proof about the provenance of the painting (= whether it is genuine (=echt) or not)

= Ursprung
= Herkunft
clandestine (adj)

(formal) done secretly or kept secret:

e.g. a clandestine meeting / relationship

= geheim
= heimlich
= verborgen
alliance (n)

1) alliance (with sb/sth) | alliance (between A and B)
an agreement between countries, political parties, etc. to work together in order to achieve sth that they all want:
e.g. to form / make an alliance
e.g. The Social Democrats are now in alliance with the Greens

2) a group of people, political parties, etc. who work together in order to achieve sth that they all want
alignment (n)

1) arrangement in a straight line:
e.g. A bone in my spine was out of alignment

2) political support given to one country or group by another:
e.g. Japan’s alignment with the West

strategic alignment = strategische Ausrichtung
exemplify (v)

1) to be a typical example of sth:
e.g. Her early work is exemplified in her book, ‘A Study of Children’s Minds’.
e.g. His food exemplifies Italian cooking at its best

2) to give an example in order to make sth clearer
SYN = to illustrate
e.g. She exemplified each of the points she was making with an amusing anecdote

noun = exemplification
cardiovascular (adj)
(medical) connected with the heart and the blood vessels (= the tubes that carry blood around the body)
exhibit (v) / (n)

1) exhibit (sth) (at / in … ) to show sth in a public place for people to enjoy or to give them information:
e.g. They will be exhibiting their new designs at the trade fairs
e.g. He exhibits regularly in local art galleries

2) (formal) to show clearly that you have or feel a particular feeling, quality or ability
SYN = display
e.g. The patient exhibited signs of fatigue and memory loss


1) an object or a work of art put in a public place, for example a museum, so that people can see it

2) a thing that is used in court to prove that sb is guilty or not guilty:
e.g. The first exhibit was a knife which the prosecution claimed was the murder weapon

3) (NAmE) = exhibition (1):
e.g. The new exhibit will tour a dozen US cities next year
gradient (n)

1) (also grade especially in NAmE) the degree to which the ground slopes, especially on a road or railway:
e.g. a steep gradient
e.g. a hill with a gradient of 1 in 4 (or 25%)

2) (technical) the rate at which temperature, pressure, etc. changes, or increases and decreases, between one region and another
tilt (v) / (n)

1) to move, or make sth move, into a position with one side or end higher than the other
SYN = to tip
e.g. Suddenly the boat tilted to one side
e.g. The seat tilts forward, when you press this lever
e.g. His hat was tilted slightly at an angle
e.g. She tilted her head back and looked up at me with a smile

2) to make sth/sb change slightly so that one particular opinion, person, etc. is preferred or more likely to succeed than another; to change in this way:
e.g. The conditions may tilt the balance in favour of the Kenyan runners
e.g. Popular opinion has tilted in favour of the socialists


1) a position in which one end or side of sth is higher than the other; an act of tilting sth to one side:
e.g. The table is at a slight tilt
e.g. He answered with a tilt of his head

2) an attempt to win sth or defeat sb:
e.g. She aims to have a tilt at the world championship next year.
tilt at sb/sth
(BrE) to attack sb/sth in speech or writing
spatial (also spacial) (adj)

(formal or technical) relating to space and the position, size, shape, etc. of things in it:
e.g. changes taking place in the spatial distribution of the population
e.g. the development of a child’s spatial awareness (= the ability to judge the positions and sizes of objects

= räumlich
= Raum-
proximity (n)

proximity (of sb/sth) (to sb/sth) (formal) the state of being near sb/sth in distance or time:

e.g. a house in the proximity of (= near) the motorway
e.g. The proximity of the college to London makes it very popular
e.g. The area has a number of schools in close proximity to each other
e.g. the death of two members of her family in close proximity

= Nähe
= nähere Umgebung
= Nachbarschaft
proxy (n)

1) the authority that you give to sb to do sth for you, when you cannot do it yourself:
e.g. You can vote either in person or by proxy
e.g. a proxy vote

2) proxy (for sb) a person who has been given the authority to represent sb else:
e.g. Your proxy will need to sign the form on your behalf
e.g. She is acting as proxy for her husband
e.g. They were like proxy parents to me

3) proxy for sth (formal or technical) something that you use to represent sth else that you are trying to measure or calculate:
e.g. The number of patients on a doctor’s list was seen as a good proxy for assessing how hard they work
arboreal (adj)

(technical) relating to trees; living in trees

e.g. In arboreal snakes, however, which dwell in trees and often assume a vertical posture, the average distance from the heart to the head can be as little as 15 percent of overall body length
posture (n) / (v)


1) the position in which you hold your body when standing or sitting:
e.g. a comfortable / relaxed posture
e.g. upright / sitting / supine postures
e.g. Good posture is essential when working at the computer
e.g. Back pains can be the result of bad posture

= Körperhaltung

2) your attitude to a particular situation or the way in which you deal with it:
e.g. The government has adopted an aggressive posture on immigration

= Haltung


posture (as sth) (formal) to pretend to be sth that you are not by saying and doing things in order to impress or trick people
wiggle (v) / (n)


(informal) to move from side to side or up and down in short quick movements; to make sth move in this way
SYN = to wriggle
e.g. Her bottom wiggled as she walked past
e.g. He removed his shoes and wiggled his toes


a small movement from side to side or up and down
torso (n)

1) the main part of the body, not including the head, arms or legs
SYN = trunk

2) a statue of a torso
vein (n)

1) any of the tubes that carry blood from all parts of the body towards the heart:
e.g. the jugular vein (=Halsader)

2) any of the very thin tubes that form the frame of a leaf or an insect’s wing

3) a narrow strip of a different colour in some types of stone, wood and cheese

4) a thin layer of minerals or metal contained in rock:
e.g. a vein of gold

5) [sing.] vein (of sth) an amount of a particular quality or feature in sth:
e.g. They had tapped a rich vein of information in his secretary

6) [sing., U] a particular style or manner:
e.g. A number of other people commented in a similar vein
e.g. ‘And that’s not all,’ he continued in angry vein
jugular (also jugular vein) (n)

any of the three large veins in the neck that carry blood from the head towards the heart

= Halsader

go for the jugular

(informal) to attack sb’s weakest point during a discussion, in an aggressive way
indigenous (adj)

indigenous (to … ) (formal)

belonging to a particular place rather than coming to it from somewhere else

SYN = native

e.g. the indigenous peoples / languages of the area
e.g. The kangaroo is indigenous to Australia
lure (v) / (n)


(disapproving) to persuade or trick sb to go somewhere or to do sth by promising them a reward
SYN = to entice
e.g. The child was lured into a car but managed to escape
e.g. Young people are lured to the city by the prospect of a job and money
= locken
= ködern


1) [usually sing.] the attractive qualities of sth:
e.g. Few can resist the lure of adventure
= Reiz
= Verlockung

2) a thing that is used to attract fish or animals, so that they can be caught
= Köder
slick (adj) / (n) / (v)

1) (sometimes disapproving) done or made in a way that is clever and efficient but often does not seem to be sincere or lacks important ideas:
e.g. a slick advertising campaign
e.g. a slick performance

2) (sometimes disapproving) speaking very easily and smoothly but in a way that does not seem sincere
SYN = glib
e.g. slick TV presenters
e.g. a slick salesman

3) done quickly and smoothly
SYN = skilful
e.g. The crowd enjoyed the team’s slick passing
e.g. a slick gear change

4) smooth and difficult to hold or move on
SYN = slippery
e.g. The roads were slick with rain

noun = slickness

1) (also 'oil slick) an area of oil that is floating on the surface of the sea

2) a small area of sth wet and shiny:
e.g. a slick of sweat


to make hair very flat and smooth by putting oil, water, etc. on it:
e.g. His hair was slicked back / down with gel
tragedy (n)

1) a very sad event or situation, especially one that involves death:
e.g. It’s a tragedy that she died so young
e.g. Tragedy struck the family when their son was hit by a car and killed
e.g. The whole affair ended in tragedy

2) a serious play with a sad ending, especially one in which the main character dies; plays of this type:
e.g. Shakespeare’s tragedies
e.g. Greek tragedy
zero-sum game (n)
a situation in which what is gained by one person or group is lost by another person or group

= Nullsummenspiel
victimize (BrE also vic·tim·ise) (v)

[often passive] to make sb suffer unfairly because you do not like them, their opinions, or sth that they have done:
e.g. For years the family had been victimized by racist neighbours
e.g. The union claimed that some of its members had been victimized for taking part in the strike

= schikanieren

noun = victimization, victimisation
shortcoming (n)
[usually pl.] a fault in sb’s character, a plan, a system, etc.

SYN = defect

e.g. The approach also had its shortcomings.

= Mangel
= Defizit
= Manko
ubiquitous (adj)

[usually before noun] (formal or humorous) seeming to be everywhere or in several places at the same time; very common:
e.g. the ubiquitous bicycles of university towns
e.g. the ubiquitous movie star, Tom Hanks

= allgegenwärtig
= omnipräsent

noun = ubiquity
e.g. the ubiquity of the mass media
intangible (adj)

1) that exists but that is difficult to describe, understand or measure:
e.g. The old building had an intangible air of sadness about it
e.g. The benefits are intangible

2) (business) that does not exist as a physical thing but is still valuable to a company:
e.g. intangible assets / property
OPP = tangible

noun = intangible
e.g. intangibles such as staff morale and goodwill
arbitrariness (n)
= Willkür
= Beliebigkeit
= Launenhaftigkeit
= Rücksichtslosigkeit

adj = arbitrary
1) (of an action, a decision, a rule, etc.) not seeming to be based on a reason, system or plan and sometimes seeming unfair
e.g. The choice of players for the team seemed completely arbitrary
e.g. He makes unpredictable, arbitrary decisions

2) (formal) using power without restriction and without considering other people
e.g. the arbitrary powers of officials
affirm (v)

formal) to state firmly or publicly that sth is true or that you support sth strongly
SYN = to confirm
e.g. Both sides affirmed their commitment to the ceasefire (=Waffenstillstand)
e.g. I can affirm that no one will lose their job

noun = affirmation
e.g. She nodded (to nod =nicken) in affirmation
furnish (v)

1) to put furniture in a house, room, etc.:
e.g. The room was furnished with antiques
= mit Möbeln ausstatten

2) furnish sb/sth with sth | furnish sth (formal)
to supply or provide sb/sth with sth; to supply sth to sb:
e.g. She furnished him with the facts surrounding the case
= zur Verfügung stellen
= versorgen
= liefern
storyteller (n)
a person who tells or writes stories
convention (n)
1) the way in which sth is done that most people in a society expect and consider to be polite or the right way to do it:
e.g. social conventions
e.g. By convention the deputy leader was always a woman
e.g. She is a young woman who enjoys flouting conventions
= Brauch, Sitte
= Gepflogenheit

2) a large meeting of the members of a profession, a political party, etc.
SYN = conference
e.g. to hold a convention
e.g. the Democratic Party Convention (= to elect a candidate for president)

3) an official agreement between countries or leaders:
e.g. the Geneva convention
e.g. the United Nations convention on the rights of the child
= Abkommen
= Vereinbarung

4) a traditional method or style in literature, art or the theatre:
e.g. the conventions of Greek tragedy
pivotal (adj)

of great importance because other things depend on it:

e.g. a pivotal role in European affairs
unwittingly (adv)
without being aware of what you are doing or the situation that you are involved in:
e.g. She had broken the law unwittingly, but still she had broken it
= unabsichtlich

OPP = wittingly
unwitting (adj)
[only before noun] not aware of what you are doing or of the situation you are involved in:

e.g. He became an unwitting accomplice in the crime
e.g. She was the unwitting cause of the argument
appeal (v) / (n)

1) appeal (against sth)
a formal request to a court or to sb in authority for a judgement or a decision to be changed:
e.g. (BrE) to lodge an appeal
e.g. (NAmE) to file an appeal
e.g. (BrE) an appeal court / judge
e.g. (NAmE) an appeals court / judge
e.g. an appeal against the 3-match ban
= Einspruch
= Berufung
= Revision

2) a quality that makes sb/sth attractive or interesting:
e.g. mass / wide / popular appeal
e.g. The Beatles have never really lost their appeal
e.g. The prospect of living in a city holds little appeal for me
s.a. sex appeal
= Anziehungskraft
= Attraktivität

3) appeal (to sb) (for sth) | appeal to sb to do sth
an urgent and deeply felt request for money, help or information, especially one made by a charity or by the police:
e.g. to launch a TV appeal for donations to the charity
e.g. a look of silent appeal
e.g. The child’s mother made an emotional appeal on TV for his return
e.g. The police made an appeal to the public to remain calm
= Aufruf
= Appellation
= Bitte

4) appeal to sth
an indirect suggestion that any good, fair or reasonable person would act in a particular way:
e.g. I relied on an appeal to his finer feelings
= Eindruck


1) appeal (to sb/sth) (against sth)
to make a formal request to a court or to sb in authority for a judgement or a decision to be changed:
e.g. He said he would appeal after being found guilty on four counts of murder
= Einspruch machen
= rekurrieren

2) appeal (to sb)
to attract or interest sb:
e.g. The prospect of a long wait in the rain did not appeal
e.g. The design has to appeal to all ages and social groups
= auf jemanden attraktiv wirken

2) appeal (to sb)
to attract or interest sb:
e.g. The prospect of a long wait in the rain did not appeal
e.g. The design has to appeal to all ages and social groups

3) appeal (to sb) (for sth)
to make a serious and urgent request:
e.g. Nationalist leaders appealed for calm
e.g. I am appealing on behalf of the famine victims (= asking for money)
= dringend bitten

4) appeal (to sth)
to try to persuade sb to do sth by suggesting that it is a fair, reasonable, or honest thing to do:
e.g. They needed to appeal to his sense of justice
refrain (v) / (n) !!!!!!

refrain (from sth / from doing sth) (formal)
to stop yourself from doing sth, especially sth that you want to do
SYN = to desist from
e.g. Please refrain from smoking
e.g. He has refrained from criticizing the government in public

= unterlassen
= zurückhalten
assign (v)
1) assign sth (to sb) | assign (sb) sth
to give sb sth that they can use, or some work or responsibility:
e.g. The two large classrooms have been assigned to us
e.g. The teacher assigned a different task to each of the children
e.g. We have been assigned the two large classrooms
e.g. The teacher assigned each of the children a different task
= zuteilen
= zuordnen
= bestimmen

2) assign sb (to sth / as sth)
to provide a person for a particular task or position:
e.g. They’ve assigned their best man to the job
e.g. British forces have been assigned to help with peacekeeping

3) [usually passive] assign sb to sb/sth
to send a person to work under the authority of sb or in a particular group:
e.g. I was assigned to B platoon
= unterstellen

4) assign sth to sth
to say that sth has a particular value or function, or happens at a particular time or place:
e.g. Assign a different colour to each different type of information

5) assign sth to sb (law)
to say that your property or rights now belong to sb else:
e.g. The agreement assigns copyright to the publisher
wade (v)

1) to walk with an effort through sth, especially water or mud:
e.g. He waded into the water to push the boat out
e.g. Sometimes they had to wade waist-deep through mud
e.g. They waded the river at a shallow point

2) (NAmE) = paddle

wade through sth
[no passive] to deal with or read sth that is boring and takes a lot of time:
e.g. I spent the whole day wading through the paperwork on my desk
inclusion (n)
1) the fact of including sb/sth; the fact of being included:
e.g. His inclusion in the team is in doubt
= Aufnahme
= Einbeziehung
= Einbindung

2) a person or thing that is included:
e.g. There were some surprising inclusions in the list
OPP = exclusion
segregation (n)

1) the act or policy of separating people of different races, religions or sexes and treating them in a different way:
e.g. racial / religious segregation
e.g. segregation by age and sex
= Trennung
= Unterteilung
= Absonderung

2) (formal) the act of separating people or things from a larger group:
e.g. the segregation of smokers and non-smokers in restaurants
eligible (adj)

1) eligible (for sth) | eligible (to do sth)
a person who is eligible for sth or to do sth, is able to have or do it because they have the right qualifications, are the right age, etc.:
e.g. Only those over 70 are eligible for the special payment
e.g. When are you eligible to vote in your country?
= berechtigt
= qualifiziert
= geeignet
OPP = ineligible

2) an eligible young man or woman is thought to be a good choice as a husband / wife, usually because they are rich or attractive
posit (v)

(formal) to suggest or accept that sth is true so that it can be used as the basis for an argument or discussion

SYN = to postulate

e.g. Most religions posit the existence of life after death
equity (n)
1) (finance) the value of a company’s shares; the value of a property after all charges and debts have been paid

2) equities [pl.] (finance)
shares in a company which do not pay a fixed amount of interest

3) (formal) a situation in which everyone is treated equally
SYN = fairness
OPP = inequity

4) (law) (especially BrE) a system of natural justice allowing a fair judgement in a situation which is not covered by the existing laws
advocate (v) / (n)

(formal) to support sth publicly:
e.g. The primary purpose of the passage is to outline several theories about a phenomenon and advoacte one of them
e.g. The group does not advocate the use of violence
e.g. Many experts advocate rewarding your child for good behaviour


1) advocate (of / for sth/sb)
a person who supports or speaks in favour of sb or of a public plan or action:
e.g. an advocate for hospital workers
e.g. a staunch advocate of free speech
= Befürworter
= Verfechter

2) a person who defends sb in court
= Anwalt
cite (v)
1) cite sth (as sth)
to mention sth as a reason or an example, or in order to support what you are saying:
e.g. He cited his heavy workload as the reason for his breakdown

2) to speak or write the exact words from a book, an author, etc.
SYN = to quote

3) (law) to order sb to appear in court; to name sb officially in a legal case:
e.g. She was cited in the divorce proceedings

4) cite sb (for sth)
to mention sb officially or publicly because they deserve special praise:
e.g. He was cited for bravery
adjacent (adj)

adjacent (to sth) (of an area, a building, a room, etc.)

next to or near sth:

e.g. The planes landed on adjacent runways

e.g. Our farm land was adjacent to the river

= angrenzend
= benachbart
treaty (n)

(pl. -ies) a formal agreement between two or more countries:

e.g. the Treaty of Rome
e.g. a peace treaty
e.g. to draw up / sign / ratify a treaty
e.g. Under the terms of the treaty, La Rochelle was ceded to the English

= Vertrag
= Staatsvertrag
= Abkommen
= Vereinbarung
withdraw (v)
1) withdraw (sb/sth) (from sth)
to move back or away from a place or situation; to make sb/sth do this
SYN = to pull out
e.g. Government troops were forced to withdraw
e.g. Both powers withdrew their forces from the region
e.g. She withdrew her hand from his

2) withdraw sth (from sth)
to stop giving or offering sth to sb:
e.g. Workers have threatened to withdraw their labour (= go on strike)
e.g. The drug was withdrawn from sale after a number of people suffered serious side effects

3) withdraw (sb/sth) (from sth)
to stop taking part in an activity or being a member of an organization; to stop sb/sth from doing these things:
e.g. There have been calls for Britain to withdraw from the EU
e.g. The horse had been withdrawn from the race

4) to take money out of a bank account:
e.g. I’d like to withdraw £250 please

5) (formal) to say that you no longer believe that sth you previously said is true
SYN = to retract
e.g. The newspaper withdrew the allegations (=Beschuldigungen, Behauptungen) the next day

6) withdraw (from sth) (into sth)
to become quieter and spend less time with other people:
e.g. She’s beginning to withdraw into herself
establish (v)
1) to start or create an organization, a system, etc. that is meant to last for a long time
SYN = to set up
e.g. The committee was established in 1912

2) to start having a relationship, especially a formal one, with another person, group or country:
e.g. The school has established a successful relationship with the local community

3) establish sb/sth / yourself (in sth) (as sth)
to hold a position for long enough or succeed in sth well enough to make people accept and respect you:
e.g. By then she was established as a star
e.g. He has just set up his own business but it will take him a while to get established

4) to make people accept a belief, claim, custom etc.:
e.g. It was this campaign that established the paper’s reputation
e.g. Traditions get established over time

5) to discover or prove the facts of a situation
SYN = ascertain
e.g. Police are still trying to establish the cause of the accident
designate (v) / (adj)

1) designate sth (as) sth | designate sth (as being sth)
to say officially that sth has a particular character or name; to describe sth in a particular way:
e.g. This area has been designated (as) a National Park
e.g. This floor has been designated a no-smoking area
e.g. Several pupils were designated as having moderate or severe learning difficulties
e.g. a designated nature reserve
e.g. designated seats for the elderly

2) designate sb (as) sth
to choose or name sb for a particular job or position:
e.g. The director is allowed to designate his / her successor
e.g. Who has she designated (as) her deputy?

3) to show sth using a particular mark or sign:
e.g. The different types are designated by the letters A, B and C


[after noun] (formal) chosen to do a job but not yet having officially started it:
e.g. an interview with the director designate
sovereignty (n)

1) sovereignty (over sth) complete power to govern a country:
e.g. The country claimed sovereignty over the island
e.g. the sovereignty of Parliament

2) the state of being a country with freedom to govern itself:
e.g. The declaration proclaimed the full sovereignty of the republic
doctrine (n)
1) a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a Church, a political party, etc.:
e.g. the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty
e.g. hristian doctrine

2) Doctrine [C] (US) a statement of government policy:
e.g. the Monroe Doctrine
constitute (v)
1) linking verb [v-n] (not used in the progressive tenses) to be considered to be sth:
e.g. Does such an activity constitute a criminal offence?

2) linking verb [v-n] (not used in the progressive tenses) to be the parts that together form sth
SYN = to make up
e.g. Female workers constitute the majority of the labour force

3) to form a group legally or officially
SYN = to establish
SYN = to set up
e.g. The committee was constituted in 1974 by an Act of Parliament
buttress (v) / (n) !!!

(formal) to support or give strength to sb/sth:
e.g. The sharp increase in crime seems to buttress the argument for more police officers on the street


a stone or brick structure that supports a wall
rescind (v)

(formal) to officially state that a law, contract, decision, etc. is no longer valid
SYN = to revoke

e.g. It was rescinded by the federal government.
precedence (n)

precedence (over sb/sth) the condition of being more important than sb else and therefore coming or being dealt with first
SYN = priority
e.g. She had to learn that her wishes did not take precedence over other people’s needs
e.g. The speakers came on to the platform in order of precedence (= the most important one first)

= Vorrang
= Priorität
= Vorzug
abolish (v)
to officially end a law, a system or an institution:

e.g. This tax should be abolished

= abschaffen
= beseitigen
= aufheben
= beenden
defer (v)

(-rr-) to delay sth until a later time

SYN = to put off

e.g. The department deferred the decision for six months
e.g. She had applied for deferred admission to college

= aufschieben
= verzögern

noun = deferment, deferral
allege (v) !!!

[often passive] (formal) to state sth as a fact but without giving proof:
e.g. The prosecution alleges (that) she was driving carelessly
e.g. It is alleged that he mistreated the prisoners
e.g. He is alleged to have mistreated the prisoners

= behaupten
= unterstellen
= anschuldigen

adjective = alleged
[only before noun] (formal):
e.g. the alleged attacker / victim / killer (= that sb says is one)
e.g. the alleged attack / offence / incident (= that sb says has happened)
subsidy (n)

(pl. -ies)

money that is paid by a government or an organization to reduce the costs of services or of producing goods so that their prices can be kept low:

e.g. agricultural subsidies
e.g. to reduce the level of subsidy
import relief
= Einfuhrerleichterung
intricate (adj)

having a lot of different parts and small details that fit together:
e.g. intricate patterns
e.g. an intricate network of loyalties and relationships

= kompliziert
brazen (adj)

1) (disapproving) open and without shame, usually about sth that people find shocking
SYN = shameless
e.g. Perhaps the most brazen case occured when the ITC investigated allegations that Candian companies were injuring the United States salt industry by...
e.g. She had become brazen about the whole affair
e.g. his brazen admission that he was cheating
= unverschämt
= schamlos

2) made of, or the colour of, brass (=Messing)
allegation (n)

allegation (of sth) (against sb) | allegation (that … ) | allegation (about sb/sth)
a public statement that is made without giving proof, accusing sb of doing sth that is wrong or illegal
SYN = accusation
e.g. Several newspapers made allegations of corruption in the city’s police department
e.g. allegations of dishonesty against him
e.g. an allegation that he had been dishonest
e.g. to investigate / deny / withdraw an allegation

= Behauptung
= Anschuldigung
to de-ice roads

to remove the ice from sth

= Strassen enteisen
accomplish (v)
to succeed in doing or completing sth
SYN = to achieve
e.g. The first part of the plan has been safely accomplished
e.g. I don’t feel I’ve accomplished very much today
e.g. That’s it. Mission accomplished (= we have done what we aimed to do)

= erreichen
= vollenden
= realisieren
isotope (n)

(physics, chemistry) one of two or more forms of a chemical element which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons in their atoms. They have different physical properties (= characteristics) but the same chemical ones:

e.g. radioactive isotopes
e.g. the many isotopes of carbon
precipitation (n)

1) (technical) rain, snow, etc. that falls; the amount of this that falls:
e.g. an increase in annual precipitation
= Niederschlag

2) (chemistry) a chemical process in which solid material is separated from a liquid
historiography (n)

= Geschichtswissenschaft

the study of writing about history
redirect (v)
1) to use sth, for example money, in a different way or for a different purpose:
e.g. Resources are being redirected to this important new project

2) to send sth to a different address or in a different direction:
e.g. Inquiries on this matter are being redirected to the press office
e.g. Make sure you get your mail redirected to your new address
refine (v)

1) to make a substance pure by taking other substances out of it:
e.g. the process of refining oil / sugar

2) to improve sth by making small changes to it
= verfeinern
= weiterentwickeln
resolve (v) (formal)

1) to find an acceptable solution to a problem or difficulty
SYN = to settle
e.g. to resolve an issue / a dispute / a conflict / a crisis
e.g. Both sides met in order to try to resolve their differences
= lösen
= aufklären
= auflösen

2) resolve (on sth / on doing sth)
to make a firm decision to do sth:
e.g. He resolved not to tell her the truth
e.g. She resolved (that) she would never see him again
= beschliessen

3) (of a committee, meeting, etc.) to reach a decision by means of a formal vote:
e.g. It was resolved that the matter be referred to a higher authority
e.g. The Supreme Council resolved to resume control over the national press
= beschliessen
solve (v)
1) to find a way of dealing with a problem or difficult situation:
e.g. Attempts are being made to solve the problem of waste disposal

2) to find the correct answer or explanation for sth:
e.g. to solve an equation / a puzzle / a riddle
e.g. to solve a crime / mystery
ample (adj)

1) enough or more than enough
SYN = plenty of
e.g. ample opportunity / evidence / space / proof
e.g. There was ample time to get to the airport
e.g. Ample free parking is available

2) (of a person’s figure) large, often in an attractive way:
e.g. an ample bosom

adverb = amply
e.g. His efforts were amply rewarded
secretion (n)

1) the process by which liquid substances are produced by parts of the body or plants:
e.g. the secretion of bile by the liver
= Aussonderung

2) a liquid substance produced by parts of the body or plants:
e.g. bodily secretions
= Sekret
neutrotransmitter (n)
(biology) a chemical that carries messages from nerve cells to other nerve cells or muscles
neuron (n)
(biology) a cell that carries information within the brain and between the brain and other parts of the body; a nerve cell
serotonin (n)
a chemical in the brain that affects how messages are sent from the brain to the body, and also affects how a person feels
depress (v)

1) to make sb sad and without enthusiasm or hope:
e.g. Wet weather always depresses me
= deprimieren
= bedrücken

2) to make trade, business, etc. less active:
e.g. The recession has depressed the housing market
= abschwächen
= mindern
= senken

3) to make the value of prices or wages lower:
e.g. to depress wages / prices
= reduzieren
= senken

4) (formal) to press or push sth down, especially part of a machine:
e.g. to depress the clutch pedal (= when driving)
= herabdrücken
insulin (n)
a chemical substance produced in the body that controls the amount of sugar in the blood (by influencing the rate at which it is removed); a similar artificial substance given to people whose bodies do not produce enough naturally:

e.g. insulin-dependent diabetes
metabolism (n)
(biology) the chemical processes in living things that change food, etc. into energy and materials for growth:

e.g. The body’s metabolism is slowed down by extreme cold

= Stoffwechsel

adjective = metabolic
e.g. a metabolic process / disorder
e.g. a high / low metabolic rate
amino acid (n)
(chemistry) any of the substances that combine to form the basic structure of proteins
protein (n)
a natural substance found in meat, eggs, fish, some vegetables, etc. There are many different proteins and they are an essential part of what humans and animals eat to help them grow and stay healthy:

e.g. essential proteins and vitamins
e.g. protein deficiency
e.g. Peas, beans and lentils are a good source of vegetable protein
reconcile (v)

1) reconcile sth (with sth)
to find an acceptable way of dealing with two or more ideas, needs, etc. that seem to be opposed to each other:
e.g. an attempt to reconcile the need for industrial development with concern for the environment
e.g. It was hard to reconcile his career ambitions with the needs of his children
= in Einklang bringen
= Kompromiss finden

2) reconcile sb (with sb)
to make people become friends again after an argument or a disagreement:
e.g. The pair were reconciled after Jackson made a public apology
e.g. He has recently been reconciled with his wife
= einen Streit schlichten

3) reconcile sb / yourself (to sth)
to make sb/yourself accept an unpleasant situation because it is not possible to change it
SYN = to resign yourself to
e.g. He could not reconcile himself to the prospect of losing her

adjective = reconcilable
capricious (adj)

1) showing sudden changes in attitude or behaviour
SYN = unpredictable

2) changing suddenly and quickly
SYN = changeable
e.g. a capricious climate

= launisch
= wechselhaft
= unberechenbar
= schwankend

noun = capriciousness
adverb = capriciously
sense (v)
(not used in the progressive tenses)

to become aware of sth even though you cannot see it, hear it, etc.:
e.g. Sensing danger, they started to run
e.g. Thomas, she sensed, could convince anyone of anything
e.g. Lisa sensed that he did not believe her
= wahrnehmen
= fühlen
= empfinden

to discover and record sth:
e.g. equipment that senses the presence of toxic gases
leery (adj)

(informal) leery (of sth/sb) | leery (of doing sth)

suspicious or careful about sth/sb, and trying to avoid doing it or dealing with them

SYN = wary

e.g. The government is leery of changing the current law

= misstrauisch
= argwöhnisch
bypass (v)
1) to go around or avoid a place:
e.g. A new road now bypasses the town
= umfahren

2) to ignore a rule, an official system or sb in authority, especially in order to get sth done quickly
= umgehen
instantaneous (adj)

happening immediately:

e.g. an instantaneous response
e.g. Death was almost instantaneous
instigate (v)

1) (especially BrE) to make sth start or happen, usually sth official
SYN = to bring sth about
e.g. The government has instigated a programme of economic reform
= einleiten
= starten
= antreiben

2) to cause sth bad to happen:
e.g. They were accused of instigating racial violence
= aufhetzen
= initiieren
= anstiften
inextricably (adj)

if two things are inextricably linked, etc., it is impossible to separate them:

e.g. Europe’s foreign policy is inextricably linked with that of the US
e.g. She had become inextricably involved in the campaign

= untrennbar
assert (v)
1) to state clearly and firmly that sth is true:
e.g. She continued to assert that she was innocent
e.g. She continued to assert her innocence
e.g. That is wrong,’ he asserted

2) assert yourself
to behave in a confident and determined way so that other people pay attention to your opinions

3) to make other people recognize your right or authority to do sth, by behaving firmly and confidently:
e.g. to assert your independence / rights
e.g. I was determined to assert my authority from the beginning

4) assert itself to start to have an effect:
e.g. Good sense asserted itself
assert (v)
1) to state clearly and firmly that sth is true:
e.g. She continued to assert that she was innocent
e.g. She continued to assert her innocence
e.g. That is wrong,’ he asserted

2) assert yourself
to behave in a confident and determined way so that other people pay attention to your opinions

3) to make other people recognize your right or authority to do sth, by behaving firmly and confidently:
e.g. to assert your independence / rights
e.g. I was determined to assert my authority from the beginning

4) assert itself to start to have an effect:
e.g. Good sense asserted itself
contend (v)
1) (formal) to say that sth is true, especially in an argument
SYN = to maintain
e.g. I would contend that the minister’s thinking is flawed on this point

2) contend (for sth) to compete against sb in order to gain sth:
e.g. Three armed groups were contending for power
ailment (n)
an illness that is not very serious:

e.g. childhood / common / minor ailments
vein (N)

1) any of the tubes that carry blood from all parts of the body towards the heart:
e.g. the jugular vein (=Halsader)
= Ader

2) any of the very thin tubes that form the frame of a leaf or an insect’s wing

3) a narrow strip of a different colour in some types of stone, wood and cheese

4) a thin layer of minerals or metal contained in rock:
e.g. a vein of gold
SYN = seam

5) [sing.] vein (of sth) an amount of a particular quality or feature in sth:
e.g. They had tapped a rich vein of information in his secretary

6) [sing., U] a particular style or manner:
e.g. A number of other people commented in a similar vein
e.g. ‘And that’s not all,’ he continued in angry vein
deposit (v)

to put or lay sb/sth down in a particular place:
e.g. She deposited a pile of books on my desk
e.g. (informal) I was whisked off in a taxi and deposited outside the hotel
= ablegen
= deponieren

(especially of a river or a liquid) to leave a layer of sth on the surface of sth, especially gradually and over a period of time:
e.g. Sand was deposited which hardened into sandstone
= ablagern
= absetzen

to put money into a bank account:
e.g. Millions were deposited in Swiss bank accounts
= einzahlen

to pay a sum of money as the first part of a larger payment; to pay a sum of money that you will get back if you return in good condition sth that you have rented
= anzahlen
= Kaution hinterlegen

deposit sth (in sth) | deposit sth (with sb/sth) to put sth valuable or important in a place where it will be safe:
e.g. Guests may deposit their valuables in the hotel safe
= hinterlegen
= in Verwahrung geben
dehydrate (v)

1) [usually passive] to remove the water from sth, especially food, in order to preserve it

2) to lose too much water from your body; to make a person’s body lose too much water:
e.g. Runners can dehydrate very quickly in this heat
e.g. the dehydrating effects of alcohol
= austrocknen

noun = dehydration
e.g. to suffer from dehydration
= Austrocknung

adjective = dehydrated
e.g. Drink lots of water to avoid becoming dehydrated
trail (n) / (v)
= Spur
= Pfad

= nachziehen
= jmd/etwas folgen
alluvial (adj)

[usually before noun] (technical)

made of sand and earth that is left by rivers or floods

e.g. They were found because they had shed trails of alluvial gold that were easily traced by simple methods.

= angeschwemmt
= abgelagert
prospect (v) / (n)


prospect (for sth) to search an area for gold, minerals, oil, etc.:
e.g. Thousands moved to the area to prospect for gold
e.g. (figurative) to prospect for new clients
= schürfen
= erkunden
= suchen


1) prospect (of sth / of doing sth) | prospect (that … ) the possibility that sth will happen:
e.g. There is no immediate prospect of peace
e.g. A place in the semi-finals is in prospect (= likely to happen)
= Aussicht
= Erwartung
= Chance

2) prospect (of sth / of doing sth) an idea of what might or will happen in the future:
e.g. Travelling alone around the world is a daunting prospect
e.g. The prospect of becoming a father filled him with alarm

3) prospects [pl.] prospect (for / of sth) the chances of being successful:
e.g. good job / employment / career prospects
e.g. At 25 he was an unemployed musician with no prospects
= Zukunftschancen
= Chancen
= Perspektive

4) prospect (for sth) a person who is likely to be successful in a competition:
e.g. She is one of Canada’s best prospects for a gold medal

5) (formal) a wide view of an area of land, etc.:
e.g. a delightful prospect of the lake
= Ausblick
enumerate (v) !!!

(formal) to name things on a list one by one

= aufzählen

e.g. The author is primarly concerned with enumerating differences between two wiedely used methods
ore (n)
rock, earth, etc. from which metal can be obtained

= Erz
warrant (v) / (n)


(formal) to make sth necessary or appropriate in a particular situation
SYN = to justify
e.g. Further investigation is clearly warranted
e.g. The situation scarcely warrants their / them being dismissed


1) warrant (for sth) | warrant (to do sth) a legal document that is signed by a judge and gives the police authority to do sth:
e.g. They issued a warrant for her arrest

2) warrant (for sth) a document that gives you the right to receive money, services, etc.

3) warrant (for sth / for doing sth) (formal) (usually in negative sentences) an acceptable reason for doing sth:
e.g. There is no warrant for such criticism
brake (v) / (n)


to go slower or make a vehicle go slower using the brake:
e.g. The car braked and swerved (=ausweichen)


1) a device for slowing or stopping a vehicle:
e.g. to put / slam on the brakes
e.g. the brake pedal

2) brake (on sth) a thing that stops sth or makes it difficult:
e.g. High interest rates are a brake on the economy
nucleus (n)
1) (physics) the part of an atom that contains most of its mass and that carries a positive electric charge

2) (biology) the central part of some cells, containing the genetic material

3) the central part of sth around which other parts are located or collected:
e.g. These paintings will form the nucleus of a new collection
luminosity (n)
= Leuchtkraft
= Lichtstärke

adjective = luminous
radiate (v)

1) if a person radiates a particular quality or emotion, or if it radiates from them, people can see it very clearly:
e.g. He radiated self-confidence and optimism
= ausstrahlen

2) if sth radiates heat, light or energy or heat, etc. radiates from it, the heat is sent out in all directions
SYN = to give (sth) off
e.g. Heat radiates from the stove
= strahlen
= ausströmen

3) (of lines, etc.) to spread out in all directions from a central point:
e.g. Five roads radiate from the square
e.g. The pain started in my stomach and radiated all over my body
= verbreiten
dim stars
stars with not bright light
disregard (v)
to not consider sth; to treat sth as unimportant
SYN = to ignore
e.g. The board completely disregarded my recommendations
e.g. Safety rules were disregarded
= missachten
= übersehen
= vernachlässigen
= ausklammern
sparse (adj)
only present in small amounts or numbers and often spread over a large area:

e.g. the sparse population of the islands

e.g. Vegetation becomes sparse higher up the mountains

e.g. The information available on the subject is sparse

= karg
= dürftig
= wenig
= spärlich
infancy (n)
1) the time when a child is a baby or very young
= Kindheit

2) the early development of sth:
e.g. a time when the cinema was still in its infancy
tick (n) (animal)
= Zecke
proliferate (v)
to increase rapidly in number or amount
SYN = to multiply
e.g. Books and articles on the subject have proliferated over the last year
= sich stark ausbreiten
= sich stark vermehren
posterity (n)
(formal) all the people who will live in the future:
e.g. Their music has been preserved for posterity
e.g. Posterity will remember him as a great man
= Nachkommen
= Nachwelt
renal (adj)
(medical) relating to or involving the kidneys:

e.g. renal failure
perversion (n)
1) behaviour that most people think is not normal or acceptable, especially when it is connected with sex; an example of this type of behaviour:
e.g. sexual perversion
e.g. sadomasochistic perversions

2) the act of changing sth that is good or right into sth that is bad or wrong; the result of this:
e.g. the perversion of justice
e.g. Her account was a perversion of the truth
= Verdrehung
= Umkehrung
grave (n) / (adj)


1) a place in the ground where a dead person is buried:
e.g. We visited Grandma’s grave
e.g. There were flowers on the grave
= Grab

2) (often the grave) (usually literary) death; a person’s death:
e.g. Is there life beyond the grave (= life after death)?
e.g. He followed her to the grave (= died soon after her)


1) (of situations, feelings, etc.) very serious and important; giving you a reason to feel worried:
e.g. The police have expressed grave concern about the missing child’s safety
e.g. The consequences will be very grave if nothing is done
e.g. We were in grave danger
= ernst
= gewichtig
= gravierend
= ernsthaft
= besorgniserregend

2) (of people) serious in manner, as if sth sad, important or worrying has just happened:
e.g. He looked very grave as he entered the room
= bekümmert
= düster
= ernst
referral (n)
referral (to sb/sth) the act of sending sb who needs professional help to a person or place that can provide it:

e.g. illnesses requiring referral to hospitals
e.g. to make a referral

= Empfehlung
= Verweis
= Einweisung
commensurate (adj)
commensurate (with sth) (formal) matching sth in size, importance, quality, etc.:
e.g. Salary will be commensurate with experience
OPP = incommensurate

= angemessen
= proportional
gimmick (n)
(often disapproving) an unusual trick or unnecessary device that is intended to attract attention or to persuade people to buy sth:
e.g. a promotional / publicity / sales gimmick

adjective = gimmicky
e.g. a gimmicky idea
agitate (v)

1) agitate (for / against sth) to argue strongly for sth you want, especially for changes in a law, in social conditions, etc.
SYN = campaign
e.g. political groups agitating for social change
e.g. Her family are agitating to have her transferred to a prison in the UK
= werben
= sich einsetzen für

2) to make sb feel angry, anxious or nervous
= aufregen
= erregen
= jmd wütend machen

3) (technical) to make sth, especially a liquid, move around by stirring or shaking it
proclaim (v)
1) to publicly and officially tell people about sth important
SYN = to declare
e.g. The president proclaimed a state of emergency
e.g. The charter proclaimed that all states would have their own government
= verkünden
= kundtun

2) (formal) to show sth clearly; to be a sign of sth:
e.g. This building, more than any other, proclaims the character of the town
e.g. His accent proclaimed him a Scot
e.g. His accent proclaimed him to be a Scot
= kundtun
= verlautbaren
= zeigen
align (v)

1) align (sth) (with sth) to arrange sth in the correct position, or to be in the correct position, in relation to sth else, especially in a straight line:
e.g. Make sure the shelf is aligned with the top of the cupboard
e.g. The top and bottom line of each column on the page should align

2) align sth (with / to sth) to change sth slightly so that it is in the correct relationship to sth else:
e.g. Domestic prices have been aligned with those in world markets

= anpassen
= abgleichen
= justieren
= anordnen
grievance (n)

grievance (against sb) something that you think is unfair and that you complain or protest about:
e.g. Parents were invited to air their grievances (= express them) at the meeting
e.g. He had been nursing a grievance against his boss for months
e.g. Does the company have a formal grievance procedure (= a way of telling sb your complaints at work)?

= Beschwerde
= Klage
= Misstand
inertia (n)

1) (usually disapproving) lack of energy; lack of desire or ability to move or change:
e.g. I can’t seem to throw off this feeling of inertia
e.g. the forces of institutional inertia in the school system
= Trägheit
= Faulheit
= Schwerfälligkeit

2) (physics) a property (= characteristic) of matter (= a substance) by which it stays still or, if moving, continues moving in a straight line unless it is acted on by a force outside itself
oddity (n)
1) a person or thing that is strange or unusual:
e.g. The book deals with some of the oddities of grammar and spelling

2) the quality of being strange or unusual:
e.g. She suddenly realized the oddity of her remark and blushed

= Sonderbarkeit
= Seltsamkeit
= Kuriosität
seaward (adj)
towards the sea; in the direction of the sea:
e.g. the seaward side of the coastal road
succession (n)

1) a number of people or things that follow each other in time or order
SYN = series
e.g. a succession of visitors
e.g. He’s been hit by a succession of injuries since he joined the team
e.g. She has won the award for the third year in succession
e.g. They had three children in quick succession
e.g. The gunman fired three times in rapid succession

2) the regular pattern of one thing following another thing:
e.g. the succession of the seasons

3) the act of taking over an official position or title; the right to take over an official position or title, especially to become the king or queen of a country:
e.g. He became chairman in succession to Bernard Allen
e.g. She’s third in order of succession to the throne
salinity (n)
= Salzgehalt

adjective = saline
containing salt:
e.g. Wash the lenses in saline solution
consummate (v)
1) to make a marriage or a relationship complete by having sex:
e.g. The marriage lasted only a week and was never consummated

2) to make sth complete or perfect
= zu Ende bringen
= durchführen
= vollziehen
inhibition (n)
1) a shy or nervous feeling that stops you from expressing your real thoughts or feelings:
e.g. The children were shy at first, but soon lost their inhibitions
e.g. She had no inhibitions about making her opinions known
= Hemmung
= Befangenheit

2) (formal) the act of restricting or preventing a process or an action:
e.g. the inhibition of growth
= Unterbindung
= Unterdrückung
locomotion (n)
(formal) movement or the ability to move

= Bewegung
= Fortbewegung
exert (v)

1) to use power or influence to affect sb/sth:
e.g. He exerted all his authority to make them accept the plan
e.g. The moon exerts a force on the earth that causes the tides
= ausüben
= anwenden

2) exert yourself to make a big physical or mental effort:
e.g. In order to be successful he would have to exert himself
= anstrengen
= bemühen
dislodge (v)
1) dislodge sth (from sth) to force or knock sth out of its position:
e.g. The wind dislodged one or two tiles from the roof

2) dislodge sb (from sth) to force sb to leave a place, position or job:
e.g. The rebels have so far failed to dislodge the President
= verdrängen
= vertreiben
endorse (v)
1) to say publicly that you support a person, statement or course of action:
e.g. I wholeheartedly endorse his remarks

2) to say in an advertisement that you use and like a particular product so that other people will want to buy it

3) to write your name on the back of a cheque so that it can be paid into a bank account

4) (BrE) to write details of a driving offence on sb’s driving licence:
e.g. You risk having your licence endorsed.
allude to sb/sth (v)
(formal) to mention sth in an indirect way

e.g. The author of the passage alludes to the well-established nature of the concoept of ...
primordial (adj)

1) existing at or from the beginning of the world
SYN = primeval
= ursprünglich

2) (of a feeling or a desire) very basic
SYN = primeval
e.g. primordial impulses
deterrence (n)
= deterrent (noun)

~ (to sb/sth) a thing that makes sb less likely to do sth (= that deters them):
e.g. Hopefully his punishment will act as a deterrent to others
= Abschreckung

adjective = deterrent
e.g. a deterrent effect
harness (n) / (v)

1) a set of strips of leather and metal pieces that is put around a horse’s head and body so that the horse can be controlled and fastened to a carriage, etc.

2) a set of strips of leather, etc. for fastening sth to a person’s body or to keep them from moving off or falling:
e.g. a safety harness


1) harness sth (to sth) to put a harness on a horse or other animal; to attach a horse or other animal to sth with a harness:
e.g. to harness a horse

2) to control and use the force or strength of sth to produce power or to achieve sth:
e.g. attempts to harness the sun’s rays as a source of energy
e.g. We must harness the skill and creativity of our workforce
hominid (noun)

(technical) a human, or a creature that lived in the past which humans developed from
e.g. ... are evidence of the use of fire by early hominids?
= Menschenaffe
attendance (n)

1) the act of being present at a place, for example at school:
e.g. Attendance at these lectures is not compulsory
e.g. Teachers must keep a record of students' attendances

2) the number of people present at an organized event:
e.g. high / low / falling / poor attendances
e.g. There was an attendance of 42 at the meeting
persecute (v)

1) persecute sb (for sth)
to treat sb in a cruel and unfair way, especially because of their race, religion or political beliefs:
e.g. Throughout history, people have been persecuted for their religious beliefs
e.g. persecuted minorities
= verfolgen
= schikanieren

2) to deliberately annoy sb all the time and make their life unpleasant
SYN = to harass
e.g. Why are the media persecuting him like this?
= schikanieren

noun = persecution
e.g. the victims of religious persecution
harass (v)

1) [often passive] to annoy or worry sb by putting pressure on them or saying or doing unpleasant things to them:
e.g. He has complained of being harassed by the police
e.g. She claims she has been sexually harassed at work
= belästigen
= schikanieren

2) to make repeated attacks on an enemy
SYN = to harry
= belästigen

noun = harassment
e.g. racial / sexual harassment
raccoon (also racoon) (n)
1) a small N American animal with greyish-brown fur, black marks on its face and a thick tail

2) the fur (=Pelz) of the raccoon
fur (n)

1) the soft thick mass of hair that grows on the body of some animals
= Pelz
= Fell

2) the skin of an animal with the fur still on it, used especially for making clothes:
e.g. a fur coat
e.g. a fur farm (= where animals are bred and killed for their fur)
e.g. The animal is hunted for its fur

3) an artificial material that looks and feels like fur

4) a piece of clothing, especially a coat or jacket, made of real or artificial fur:
e.g. elegant ladies in furs

5) (BrE) = scale noun

6) a greyish-white layer that forms on a person’s tongue, especially when they are ill / sick
owl (n)
a bird of prey (= a bird that kills other creatures for food) with large round eyes, that hunts at night. Owls are traditionally thought to be wise:
e.g. An owl hooted nearby
= Eule
affluent (adj)

having a lot of money and a good standard of living
SYN = prosperous
SYN = wealthy
e.g. affluent Western countries
e.g. a very affluent neighbourhood
= wohlhabend

noun = affluence
SYN = prosperity
non-native (adj)
1) (of animals, plants, etc.) not existing naturally in a place but coming from somewhere else

2) a non-native speaker of a language is one who has not spoken it from the time they first learnt to talk
OPP = native
pollinate (v)

to put pollen into a flower or plant so that it produces seeds:
e.g. flowers pollinated by bees / the wind
e.g. the trees' flowers have traditionally been pollinated by hand
= befruchten
= besamen
= bestäuben
weevil (n)

a small insect with a hard shell, that eats grain, nuts and other seeds and destroys crops
= Rüsselkäfer
pollinator (n)
= Bestäuber

e.g. When weevils known to be efficient pollinators of palm flowers were introduced into Asia in 1980, palm fruit productivity increased by up to 70 percent in some areas
synthesize (BrE also synthesise)

1) (technical) to produce a substance by means of chemical or biological processes
e.g. The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a medication for sleep disorders when taken in synthesized form.
= künstlich herstellen
= synthetisch bilden

2) to produce sounds, music or speech using electronic equipment

3) to combine separate ideas, beliefs, styles, etc.
= zusammenfassen
acclaim (v) / (n)


[usually passive] acclaim sb/sth (as sth) to praise or welcome sb/sth publicly:
e.g. a highly / widely acclaimed performance
e.g. The work was acclaimed as a masterpiece
= anerkennen
= begrüssen
= bejublen


praise and approval for sb/sth, especially an artistic achievement:
e.g. international / popular / critical acclaim
e.g. In recent years, many cabinetmakers have been winning acclaim as artists
= Beifall
= Zustimmung
cabinetmaker (n)

a person who makes fine wooden furniture, especially as a job
= Tischler
= Schreiner
elaborate (adj) / (v)

('ilaberet) / ('ilabereit)

[usually before noun] very complicated and detailed; carefully prepared and organized:
e.g. Male bowerbirds construct elaborately decorated nest, or bowers
e.g. elaborate designs
e.g. She had prepared a very elaborate meal

adverb = elaborately
e.g. an elaborately decorated room

noun = elaborateness


1) ~ (on / upon sth) to explain or describe sth in a more detailed way:
e.g. He said he was resigning but did not elaborate on his reasons
e.g. She went on to elaborate her argument

2) to develop a plan, an idea, etc. and make it complicated or detailed:
e.g. In his plays he takes simple traditional tales and elaborates them

noun = elaboration
e.g. The importance of the plan needs no further elaboration
bower (n)

(literary) a pleasant place in the shade under trees or climbing plants in a wood or garden / yard

e.g. Male bowerbirds construct elaborately decorated nest, or bowers
inept (adj)

acting or done with no skill:
e.g. She was left feeling inept and inadequate
e.g. an inept remark
= unfähig
= untauglich
= unpassend
= sinnlos
= unbeholfen
= ungeeignet
welfare (n)

1) the general health, happiness and safety of a person, an animal or a group
SYN = well-being
e.g. We are concerned about the child’s welfare
= Wohlergehen
= Wohlbefinden

2) practical or financial help that is provided, often by the government, for people or animals that need it:
e.g. The state is still the main provider of welfare
e.g. a social welfare programme
= Sozialhilfe

3) (especially NAmE) = social security:
e.g. They would rather work than live on welfare
propagate (v)

1) (formal) to spread an idea, a belief or a piece of information among many people:
e.g. Television advertising propagates a false image of the ideal family
= verbreiten
= propagieren

2) (technical) to produce new plants from a parent plant:
e.g. The plant can be propagated from seed (=Saat, Samen)
e.g. Plants won’t propagate in these conditions
= sich fortpflanzen
cultivation (n)

1) the preparation and use of land for growing plants or crops:
e.g. fertile land that is under cultivation (= being cultivated)
e.g. rice / wheat, etc. cultivation
= Bewirtschaftung
= Ackerbau
= Anbau
= Zucht
= Nutzbarmachung

2) the deliberate development of a particular relationship, quality or skill:
e.g. the cultivation of a good relationship with local firms
shifting cultivation (n)
(technical) a way of farming in some tropical countries in which farmers use an area of land until it cannot be used for growing plants any more, then move to a new area of land
fortify (v)

1) fortify sth (against sb/sth) to make a place more able to resist attack, especially by building high walls:
e.g. a fortified town
= verstärken
= befestigen
= verschanzen

2) fortify sb / yourself (against sb/sth) to make sb/yourself feel stronger, braver, etc.:
e.g. He fortified himself against the cold with a hot drink
= bestärken

3) to make a feeling or an attitude stronger:
e.g. The news merely fortified their determination
= verstärken

4) fortify sth (with sth) to increase the strength or quality of food or drink by adding sth to it:
e.g. Sherry is fortified wine (= wine with extra alcohol added)
e.g. cereal fortified with extra vitamins
e.g. Many breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin supplements
= anreichern