Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Claim
The communicators view, main point, conclusion, thesis about the subject
Arguable claim
1. probability of truth
2. not be generally accepted
as truth
3. be arguable on objective grounds.
Reason
Claim that supports another claim; often uses: because, since, therefore
Evidence
Supports reasons and claims.
Includes facts, statistics, authorities, true anedotes, scenarios, cases, text evidence. Also called "grounds"
Facts
Information that can be verified.
Inference
A conclusion we come to indirectly, based on specific evidence. Recognizing implications and drawing conclusions. forming ideas from the spoken or written word
Judgement
inference that expresses wither approval or disapproval.
Assumptions
Missing statements
Fallacies
flaws in logic, invalid arguments.
Deductive reasoning
Statements that provide strong support for a claim that is strong. Formal, watertight conclusions
Inductive Reasoning
From the particular to the general. Not every specific is known so claim is only probable.
Dialectical Approach
Looking at an issue from all sides. Investigating contradictions to resolve them.
Counterargument
Challenges that someone may have in reaction to an argument. Type of audience determines where to place it for most effectiveness.
Counterargument strategies
1.Acknowledgement
2.Refutiation (directly argue against, say No, thats wrong....
3Concession-recognize part of argument that is true or that you agree with, but....
Structure of argument
Classical structure
Delayed thesis
Classical Structure
introduction, presentation of writers position, summary and response to opposing views, conclusion. Patterned on right-wrong, win-lose
delayed thesis(rogerian structure)
investigates info
by building common ground, first, then presents writers position. Dialectical approach. Goal is win-win. Thesis comes later
thesis
Claim
Unstated assumption
missing statements that support the claim or reasoning. Assumptions can vary depending on how reader and writer, interpret.
Fallacy
flaw in logic,
elements of an argument
Claim, Reason, Evidence, Facts, Inference, Judgment; Assumptions, Fallacies, Deductive Reasoning, Inductive Reasoning, Dialectical Approach, Counterargument, Rebuttal
Fallacy-Begging the question
arguing that a statement is true by repeating claim in different words.
Confusing chronology/causality
Because one thing preceded another, the former caused the latter(because of this, this happened)
Either/Or reasoning
two sides to a question, and yours is the only correct one.
equivocating
Misleading with ambiguous word choices
False Analogy
Because one thing resembles another, conclusions from one also apply to the other
Over-reliance on authority
something is true simple because an expert said so, ignoring evidence to the contrary.
Personal attack
Demeaning proponents of a claim
red Herring
misdirect discussion by raising an essentially unrelated point.
Slippery Slope
Pretending that one thing inevitably leads to another
Sob Story
manipulating readers emotions to lead them to draw conclusions
Straw man
Directing the argument against a claim that nobody actually holds or that everyone agrees, is weak.
Rhetoric
1.Art of persuasion
2. Style
3. Arrangement and placement of ideas for an audience
Communication triangle
Writer
Subject
Reader
Rhetorical Appeals
Logic, Emotion, Ethics
Logical Appeal
Based on logic, evidence, facts (scientific writing, court decisions, grant writing, tech. writing
Emotional appeal
strat/appeal based on manipulating emotions of the audience (greeting cards, soap opera, requesting money for charity)
Ethical Appeal
strategies/appeals based on ethics, what is right and good.
(campaign ads and speeches, interviews, college admission essays)
Audience Analysis
Size of audience, Age, gender and Occupation, Business, Professional group, Primary interests and desires, Age, gender, occupation, Knowledge or prior experience with topic. Degree of resistance to your position.