Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/44

Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The mineralized ECM of bone, providing support and protection
Calcium hydroxyapetite
Osteonectin is an example of a what? What is its purpose?
multiadhesive glycoprotein, a non-collagenous ECM protein in the bone. It attaches collagen fibers to hydroxyapetite crystals.
The non-collagenous matrix proteoglycans give what characteristics to bone?
They prevent bone from mineralizing, contributing to its compressive strength
Sialoproteins and osteopontin (non-collagenous multiadhesive) serve what purpose in the bone ECM?
They mediate attachment of cells to bone ECM and help during mineralization
Upon which vitamin are the bone-specific proteins of the non-collagenous type in bone ECM dependent?
Vit. K; They include osteocalcin, protein S, and matrix Gla-protein
Name of the ducts through which the cytoplasm of osteoclasts project and communicate with one another
canaliculi
A bone is formed of:

(hint: 6 components)
- bone tissue
- hemopoietic tissue
- fat tissue
- blood vessels
- nerves
- hyaline cartilage on articular surfaces of long bone
Another name for the bone shaft
diaphysis
Another name for the ends of long bones
epiphyses
The name for the junction of bone shaft and bone end
metaphysis
metacarpals are an example of what type of bone?
long bone
carpals are an example of what type of bone?
short bone
the calvaria (skull bone) is an example of what kind of bone?
flat bone
ethmoid bone is an example of what type of bone?
irregular bone
outer surface of bone = ?

Where is it not continuous?
periosteum

covers all bone except where there is articular cartilage
Periosteum is made of two layers:
inner cellular layer (osteoprogenitor cells) and outer fibrous layer
inner surface of bone = ?

Of what is it made?
endosteum

osteoprogenitor cells, bone lining cells, osteoblasts
red marrow consists of...

yellow marrow consists of...
red - developing blood cells, reticular cells and fibers, blood vessels

yellow - fat cells
with age, red marrow becomes yellow marrow, except in the...
iliac crest and sternum
cylindrical units that make up compact bone
osteons (aka Haversian systems)

osteonal (Haversian) canal contains vessels and nerves
What are the holes called through which vessels enter the bone?

Through what part(s) of a long bone do they enter?
nutrient foramina

Diaphysis and Epiphysis
List the types of collagen present in bone. (Hint: one type is very common, another is present in small amounts, and three others are found in trace amounts)
type 1 - found in all bone, very prominent.
type 5 - found in small amounts
types 2, 11, and 13 - found in trace amounts
Haversian (osteonal) canals run (with/against) the grain of lamella?

What is the name of the canals for which the other answer would be true?
With

Voltmann's canals (a.k.a. perforating canals) run against the grain
What part of bone (if any) is provided with lymphatic drainage?
Only periosteum
How does immature bone differ from mature bone?
- "nonlamellar" - doesn't display an organized lamellar pattern; cells randomly arranged
- relatively more cells per unit area than mature bone
- matrix has more ground substance than mature bone
- less heavily mineralized than mature bone
- forms more rapidly than mature bone
Where does immature bone exist in adults?
Areas of remodeling or repair; tooth sockets
Which of the following are related in terms of ancestry? In what order do they develop?
Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and osteocytes
-progenitor --> -blast --> cyte
Osteoid
the initially secreted unmineralized matrix, secreted by osteoblasts
What two enzymes are used clinically as markers of osteoblast activity?
alkaline phosphatase

osteocalcin
Function of bone lining cells
provide support for osteocytes

regulate movement of calcium and phosphate into and out of bone
Three functional states of osteocytes:
quiescence

formative

resorptive
What stains take to osteoclasts?
cytoplasm stains acidophilic
name for the resorption pit in which osteoclasts sit:
Howship's lacunae
Osteoclasts derive from what type of cell? Under the influence of what proteins does this differentiation occur?
derive from marrow precursors (CFU-GM)

M-CSF, TNF, and several interleukins --> all cytokines
Later in osteoclast development, CFU-GM precursor cells express RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B) binds to RANKL (L=ligand) on what cells?
stromal cells
What protein blocks the binding of RANK to RANKL? What cells make it?
osteoprotegerin (OPG)

osteoblasts
What morphologic region on osteoclasts is characterized by deeply folded plasma membrane, proton pumps, and proximity to mito and lysosomes?
Ruffled border
What morphologic region is characterized by ring-like perimeter surrounding the ruffled border; containing actin filaments but lacking other organelles; associated with talin and vinculin (actin-binding prots); and adhesive proteins to help seal the cell to bone matrix?
Clear zone
By what means does the osteoclast decalcify the matrix?
What enz produces the active ingredient?
Acidification; proton pumps transport protons through ruffled border, creating low pH environment

Carbonic anhydrase II produces carbonic acid
T/F: When osteoclasts are finished with resorption, they detach from bone and enter marrow to be transported to the next site of resorption
False. They undergo apoptosis when they are completed with resorption.
Where does intramembranous ossification occur?
skull, face, clavicle
In terms of staining, calcified cartilage is _________.
Bone is ___________.
Basophilic
Eosinophilic
mineralization
osteocalcin and sialoproteins bind extracellular calcium, increasing local concentration. Osteoblasts secrete Alkaline Phosphatase, increasing phosphate concentration. formation of CaPO4, deposited between collagen I fibrils.
Is blood Ca concentration altered to maintain constant bone calcium levels or is the opposite true?
The opposite is true.