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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
angiogenesis
the growth of new vessels from preexisting vessels
cicatrix
scar
collagen
protein that is the main component of connective tissue in the body
debridement
medical removal of a patient's dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue
fibronectin
ECM protein that binds ECM components such as fibrin, collagen, etc.
granulation tissue
"combination of neovascularity, ""activated"" fibroblasts and mixed inflammatory infiltrate (mostly macrophages) embedded in an edematous ground substance"
organization
degree of connective tissue scarring and functional impairment of the injured tissue
proud flesh
"exuberant granulation
resolution
regeneration of new cells with restoration original tissue function
What is the end stage of the host response system to tissue injury?
wound healing
What is the term for the regeneration of new cells that maintain the original function of tissue that sustained damage?
resolution
T/F - In most instances, all original function of damaged tissue is restored in wound healing.
"False
What stage of somatic cell division is a cell in when it is resting/non-dividing?
G0
"What gene ""surveys"" DNA for mutations in the G2 phase of the somatic cell cycle?"
p53 tumor suppressor gene
Which type of cell continuously regenerate throughout life to replace other cells that are through normal normal physiological processes?
"labile cells
Which type of cell has no ability to regenerate?
"permanent cells
Which type of cell retains the ability to regenerate but do not do so under normal circumstances?
"stable cells
What are the 3 hypotheses related to stable cell proliferation?
"1) stimulation by growth factors
T/F - The mechanism(s) by which stable cells are stimulated to re-enter the G1 phase of the cell cycle and proliferate is well known.
"False
"Which theory regarding regenerative stimuli holds that polypeptide proteins attach to cell membrane receptor sites to promote DNA replication or ""prime"" the cell for DNA replication?"
stimulation by growth factors
progression factors (growth factors)
promote DNA replication
competence factors (growth factors)
"""prime"" the cell for DNA replication"
Which theory regarding regenerative stimuli holds that cells are some times stimulated to divide after separating from neighboring cells?
"loss of contact inhibition
Which theory regarding regenerative stimuli holds that a cell divides after losing cell density in tissue?
"decrease in cellular density
What are two types of tissue repair?
"1) cell regeneration
What component produces collagen to form a scar (cicatrix)?
fibroblasts
Which types of collagen are fibrillar in structure?
"1) Type I
Which type of collagen is the predominant in skin, bone and most organs?
Type I collagen
Which type of collagen is found especially as a constituent of basement membranes?
Type IV collagen
What type of repair occurs where the margins of the wound are closely coapted by sutures or other methods?
"healing by first intention
What are two results, on the tissue level, observed with scarring?
"1) structural change
What is the sequence of steps involved in healing? (6)
"1) clot formation
Which cofactor is vital to the process of collagen synthesis?
"vitamin C
What two specific conditions involved in tissue injury allow healing by first intention (primary union)?
"1) minimal tissue loss
How is a scab formed?
"dehydration of fibrin-rich exudate on the external surface of tissue injury
T/F - Granulation tissue is a good thing.
"True
T/F - Granulation tissue is present with granulomatous infection.
"False
What two specific conditions involved in tissue injury require healing by second intention (secondary union)?
"1) more extensive tissue loss
T/F - Healing by second intention is faster than that of first intention.
False
Varying degrees of which two factors determine whether tissue injury heals via primary or secondary union?
"1) amount of tissue loss
wound contraction
myofibroblasts (fibroblasts containing myofilaments) at the edges of the wound contract and can significantly reduce the volume of the area that must be filled with granulation tissue and subsequent scar
What does the tensile strength of a wound depend on?
"1) type of collagen deposited
Which abberation of connective tissue proliferation involves excessive buildup of granulation tissue which protrudes above the surface of the wound and prevents re-epithelialization?
"proud flesh
What are two conditions that will delay wound healing?
"1) exuberant granulation (proud flesh)
What is prevented, in healing, by the presence of proud flesh?
prevents epithelium from closing over a wound
T/F - Predisposition of keloid formation tends to run in families.
"True
Which abberation of connective tissue proliferation involves a buildup of excessive amounts of collagen leading to disfiguring scars?
keloid formation
What is essential for rapid healing of wounds?
"1) nutrition (particularly vit C and zinc)
T/F - Healing by first intention normally results in a large amount of inflammatory exudate and necrotic debris.
"False
Healing by first intention involves interactions between what tissue components? (4)
"1) ECM
In healing by first intention, what is the first action seen?
clot formation
What is one purpose that a scab serves in healing?
seals the wound against invasion by microorganisms
In the inflammation seen in primary union, what structures are formed by the inflammatory exudate and coated by plasma fibronectins?
"fibrin strands
What functions do fibrin strands serve in inflammation?
"1) chemotaxis for macrophages and fibroblasts
What are the steps of epithelial regeneration seen in healing by first intention?
"1) re-epitheliazation (proliferation and migration to midline) within 24 hours
"By the second day of healing by first intention, what components from healthy wound margins are ""activated"" (increased cell size due to RER increase)?"
fibroblasts
Around the third day of healing by first intention, what components begin to replace neutrophils?
macrophages
Which stage of healing by first intention (primary union) involves angiogenesis?
neovascularization
"What is the combination of neovascularity, ""activated"" fibroblasts and mixed inflammatory infiltrate called?"
"granulation tissue
What stage of healing by first intention involves collagen becoming more abundant, fibroblasts apoptosing and the vessels slowly being crowded out?
scar formation
In what situation would healing by second intention be seen?
when there is sufficient loss of of tissue to prevent coaptation of wound margins (abscesses, ulcersm infarctions, etc.)
T/F - Generally, with secondary union, there is minimal inflammatory exudate and necrotic debris that must be removed before healing can occur.
"False
exuberant granulation
"""proud flesh""
keloid formation
"buildup of excessive amounts of collagen