Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
“Diamond Vehicle” Buddhism, as esoteric Budhist preactice that developed in northern India from the sixth to seventh centuries; its later developments are known as Tantric Buddhism. Kind of Tibetan Buddhism, with focus on guru as 4th Refuge
Dalai Lama
Member of Gelupka order (yellow hats), received Nobel Peace Prize, been in exile since 1959 (14th DL)
Abode of Avalokita, major pilgrimage/tourist center, home of Dalai Lama
Om Mani Padme Hum
“Hail to the jeweled lotus.” refers to Avalokita
Tenzin Gyatso
(Kundun – name of previous reincarnation), 14th Dalai Lama,
Depictions of the universe using symbolic iconic pictorial devices; used in esoteric Buddhist practices. The twofold diamond mandala and womb mandala aid the meditator to advance in his or her spiritual awakening.
The ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar, during which practicing Muslims fast, abstaining from eating, drinking, smoking, violence, and sex from before sunrise until after sunset for the entire month
A legal opinion or decree; the answer given by a mufti to a question posed to him
Literally “repetition,” “remembrance,” “utterance, or “mentioning,” the commonest tern used for Sufi meditational exercises
Islamic law - “the way”, analogous to dharma, practice, the law
Means “nation” or “community” and refers to the community of believers made up by all the Muslims of the world, first was founded in Medina
Twelvers, dominant in Iran, think the line ends after 12th Iman named Muhammad
Most active/vibrant city/town, important economic pilgrimage center, Mu’s birthplace, home of Kaba (black cube)
Sentient beings mentioned in the Qur’an, frequently identified as demons
“Prophet,” males usually, figures appearing respresent vertain gods, voice of god (influenced by Jewish tradition)
Koran (Quran)
The Muslim scripture, which is believed to have been revealed by God to the Prophet Muhammad
Traditions or anecdotes concerning the life and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad; used as a scriptural sources of secondary importance to the Qur’an.
The term used for individual chapters of the Qur’an
The name of the majority sect in Islam, concentrated in Saudi Arabia, dominant group
Abu Bakr
Muhammad’s friend, advisor, father of his wife A’isha, and the first Caliph of the Sunnis
Caliph (Khalifat)
The leaders of the Muslim community after Muhammad. It comes from the Arabic word khalifa, which means “representative” or “delegate,” implying that the Caliphs did not rule on their own authority but only as the representatives of God and His Prophet
The name of Abu Bakr’s daughter, and wife of Muhammad; she outlived him by several decades and is one of the most important sources of doctrinal and historical information in the formatives period of Islam
Muhammad’s daughter, wife of Ali and mother of Husayn. She is a focus of devotion in Shi’i Islam.
The name given to a wide range of expressions of mystical religiosity in Islam. The same as tasawwuf
Mystical tradition of Islam, lock horns with clerics, many martyrs, very challenging to law, religion should liberate not force, come from both Sunni & Shi’I groups
Mark that indicates direction of Mecca, most important part of mosque
Dar al-Islam
Ideal, rare to have seen it embodied, anyplace in world where Islam can be practiced freely
Dar al-Harb
Abode of Conflict, can be applied anywhere, Sharia has not been completely implemented, justification for jihad
a high rank given to major Shī’a clerics. The word means "Sign of God" and those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, ethics, philosophy and mysticism and usually teach in schools of Islamic sciences. Rank given by consensus.
Literally, “ignorance,” a term used to describe Arab society before the advent of Islam. Certain Islamist organizations have started using the term to indicate all the parts of the world that do not meet their standards of virtue and good government
The followers of the religious reformer Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadian (d. 1908), who are considered apostates by many Sunnis because they grant him the status of prophethood
A pilgrimage to the Ka’ba in Mecca, which constitutes one of the ritual obligations of Islam
is a word in the Arabic language meaning elder of tribe, lord, a revered old man, or islamic religious scholar. The term literally means a man of old age. Later it came to be a title meaning leader, elder or noble.
The Islamic profession of faith: “I bear witness that there is no god except the God and I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of the God!”
Idolatry, seen as any obstacle that keeps you from the best relationship with Allah
The name of the Islamic ritual prayer; the same as namaz
A Muslim place of prayer, same as a masjid.
Ritual alms-giving, which consists of giving a fixed percentage of one’s wealth in charity every year
The concept of divine unity, which is central to Muslim belief
God is one not many
Sufi orders, which have been very important in the history of Islamic thought and society
The primary prophet of Islam, believed by Muslims to have received divine revelation in the form of the Qur’an, and to be the last in a series of prophets beginning with Adam and including all the prophets mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, as well as Jesus
Ppl of Medina implore Mu to come build their community, and he does in 622, other rumors were that he was fleeing Mecca because of assassination attempts, where Mu dies in 632
The name of the Prophet’s first wife, who is also honored as the first convert of Islam.
Hijira (Hijra)
The migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622, which marks the beginning of the Islamic Hijri calendar
A cubic building located in Mecca, believed to have been built by Abraham at God’s command. It is the direction in which Muslims pray and the focus of the ritual pilgrimage called the Hajj
The class of Muslim religious scholars
The chain of transmitting authorities of a Hadith account.
“Chain of Transmitters”
Five Pillars
Shahada – profession/statement in public that there is one God & Mu is seal
Salat (Namaz) – daily prayers
Zakat – religious tax for charity
Ramadan Fasting
The Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca
The custom or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, which is used as a source of law and as an informal model of behavior in everyday life.
Biographies/stories of the prophets
a Persian mystic, writer and teacher of Sufism. Many Sufi masters felt that it was inappropriate to share mysticism with the masses, yet Al-Hallaj openly did so in his writings and through his teachings.His writings are very important not only to Sufis, but to all Muslims.
The 12th Imam, he doesn’t die, “the concealment of the 12th,” no reports of his death, he will one day return as the Madhi (Messiah)
The name of a Shi’I sect, seveners, break off because of dispute over 7th Imam
Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law; considered the first Imam by Shi’I Muslims and the fourth Caliph by Sunnis. He is one of the most important figures in early Islam
Husain (Husayn)
The younger son of Ali and Fatima, and grandson of the Prophet. His martyrdom at Karbala is a major focus of Shi’i belief and ritual
In S. Iraq, 630 ce
Literally, “leader,” it is a term used for anyone who leads prayers in a mosque. More importantly, it is the title of the rightful leader of the Muslim community in the Shi’I sect. Faith.
Passion plays by which Twelver Shi’is commemorate the martyrdom of Husayn in the month of Muharram. The term is also used for the mourning processions that are organized during this month
Zam Zam
Hagar’s well
The ritual washing that precedes prayers (salat)
A Sufi mystical concept that signifies the annihilation of a person’s individuality in the oneness of God
“origin-manifestation,” kami is manifestation of Buddhas (harmonic beliefs) (see Yusa 61)
“God(s),” “deity,” or “deities”; the main objects of worship in ancient Shinto practice. The kami may be the spirits residing in natural objects, personified deities, or deified persons; kami spirits are awe-inspiring and can be benevolent or malevolent.
The great sun goddess and imperial ancestor. The Inner Shrine at Ise is dedicated to her.
Jodo Shu
“Pure Land” sect, founded by Honen; emphasizes the sustained single-minded chanting of nembutsu
Jodo Shinshu
“True Pure Land” sect; it grew out of the teachings of Shinran and emphasizes the utter reliances on the saving grace of Amida Buddha
1st time marriage becomes monastic practice
a Japanese Buddhist priest, credited with bringing the Rinzai school of Zen Buddhism and green tea from China to Japan.
The “Nichiren sect” or “Lotus sect,” founded by Nichiren, who upheld the importance of self-improvement and steadfast faith in the Eternal Buddha as preached in the Lotus Sutra.
Preaches only Lotus Sutra Buddhism, radical
Soka Gakkai
international umbrella organization for Soka Gakkai-affiliated lay organizations in over 190 countries. has over 12 million members, who practice Soka Gakkai's particular form of Nichiren Buddhism. (Nichiren Buddhism is generally noted for its focus on the Lotus Sutra and an attendant belief that all people have an innate Buddha nature and are therefore inherently capable of attaining enlightenment in their current form and present lifetime)
a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher and founder of the Soto school of Zen in Japan. Dogen means roughly "Source of the Way."
Sitting meditation in a cross-legged “full lotus” or “half lotus” position; the central element of Zen practice
A problem to meditate and solve; a device often used in Zen Buddhism to bring about a breakthrough for students. It challenges the epistemological subject-object dichotomy, and brings the issues “home” to our physical reality, which, as Zen insists, is an integral part of our intellectual understanding.
“Namu Amida Butsu,” endless recitation of this in Jodo Shu, you never know when you will die
(1173-1263) was Tendai monk, was “Martin Luther” of Japanese Buddhism, obsessed with being perfect, persecuted, married, founded Jodo Shin Shu, was a disciple of Honen but had fall out of Nembutsu usage
(1133-1212) used to be a member of Tendai, became Tendai monk at young age, while monk he writes treatises on importance of Pure Land Sutras, founded Jodo Shu, persecuted, never married
As Bodhisattva Dharmakara he pledged that should he attain bddhahood he would save every soul who invokes his name in total devotion; he resides in his Western Paradise
Bodhisattva of mercy, second in rank to Amida Buddha. An Indian bodhisattva, Avalokitesvara, was transfigured into a goddess of mercy in China and Japan. Her cult resembles that of the Virgin Mary in the Catholic tradition
Protector of children and travelers, seen in both male and female form (Avalokitesvara & Guan Yin).
Faith, true mind, true heart
Tariki/ jiriki
T - “other-power,” represented by faith in Amida Buddha
J - “self-power”; reliance on one’s own effort to achieve religious salvation.