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70 Cards in this Set

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mammoth
A species of ancient extinct elephant. Adults were about 10 feet tall at the shoulder, with long tusks and a coat of long reddish or yellowish hair. Also called 'woolly mammoths.'
Prehistoric Era
The period of time before writing systems were invented.
anthropology
The study of origins of human beings and their different cultures, or lifestyles, in both the past and present.
archaeology
The scientific study of artifacts in order to learn about the lives of past peoples.
artifact
An object made by human beings, such as a tool or building.
DNA
The chemical building block of all living things. It determines the passing on of physical characteristics between generations.
Australopithecus
The earliest known hominid ancestor of modern humans. They were different from primates because they walked upright on two feet.
Homo sapiens
The term for modern humans.
Homo hablis
The first of our hominid ancestors to be classified in the homo genus, the same genus as modern humans. These had much larger brains than Australopithecus.
primates
Members of an order of mammals with a large brain and complex hands and feet, including humans, apes, and monkeys.
hominid
The term for human beings and their immediate ancestors. Includes several types of human beings that are now extinct, and primates.
Homo erectus
A hominid that developed after homo hablis. These were bigger, stronger, and had a larger brain than earlier hominids.
Neanderthals
An extinct type of Homo sapiens that lived mainly in Europe and in parts of Asia.
Cro-Magnons
An early type of Homo sapiens who lived in Europe. They are known for their spectacular cave paintings.
Paleolithic period
The early period of human history in which humans used simple stone tools. It spans from 2,500,000 BC to 10,000 BC. It's also called the Old Stone Age.
carbon dating
A method that scientists use to determine how old a living item was when it died.
irrigation
It is when water is supplied to land, usually for growing crops, by artificial means such as manmade canals.
civilization
A highly organized society marked by advanced knowledge of trade, government, arts, science, and often written language.
economic specialization
A stage in a society or culture in which people have different duties or jobs to provide for the community.
culture
The way of life of a society that is handed down from one generation to the next by learning and experience.
nomadic
Moving from place to place in search of food.
city-state
Political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands.
epic
A writing that resembles an extended narrative poem celebrating heroic feats.
technological
Refers to the tools and skills people use to meet basic needs.
ziggurat
Ancient Mesopotamian temple shaped like several pyramids set atop each other in a step-like fashion. At the top was an altar where sacrifices were performed.
polytheistic
Believing in more than one god.
empire
A government that controls a large territory, usually consisting of a variety of different peoples. Most empires are created when a group of peoples sets out to conquer neighboring peoples.
Hammurabi
A king who united most of Mesopotamia and his most important contribution is a set of laws.
bureaucracy
The group of people that help run a government.
Nebuchadnezzar
A ruthless king, who revived the power of Babylon. He's also responsible for the Hanging Gardens -- one of the seven wonders of the world.
cavalry
Troops trained to fight on horseback.
Cleopatra
A famous Egyptian Queen whose affairs with Julius Caesar and Marc Antony are legendary. She used these affairs to gain power and manipulate her enemies.
King Tut
A young, minor Egyptian king. He is more famous for the riches of his discovered tomb.
pharaoh
The title of the rulers of ancient Egypt.
dynasty
A line of rulers who belong to the same family.
egyptologist
A scientist who studies ancient Egypt and is an expert on Egyptian life and artifacts.
divine ruler
The belief that the ruler's authority comes directly from god.
bohemian
A group with artistic or literary interests who disregards conventional standards of behavior.
stratification
The process of dividing or arranging into classes, castes, or social layers.
Ottoman Empire
A former Turkish sultanate (capital Constantinople) that ranged from SE Europe, to Asia, Africa, parts of Russia, and much of the Middle East.
Zoroastrianism
A religion founded by the Persian Zoroaster. It was an early example of monotheism.
monotheism
The worship of only one god.
prophet
A person who claims to speak on behalf of God.
textiles
A cloth, especially one manufactured by weaving or knitting; a fabric.
alphabet
Letters that represent spoken sounds.
Abraham
He is the patriarch of the Hebrew people. He is also considered an important figure in all three major religions of the world: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
relic
An object of religious veneration, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of a saint.
myth
A traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes that acts as the worldview of a people, as by explaining aspects of the natural world, customs, or ideals of society.
Plato
A famous Greek philosopher who emphasized the importance of reason. He wrote 'The Republic.'
Aegean Sea
A sea located between the Italian peninsula and the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea.
domesticate
Taming animals and adapting crops for the purpose of cultivation.
egalitarian
Affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people.
monsoon
A system of winds in the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia that alternates directions in the summer and the winter, resulting in a predictable pattern of heavy rains each summer followed by cold and dry winters.
pastoral society
A society with an economy based on herding domesticated animals. Many of these societies are nomadic.
varna
It is the Aryan word for its social class groups.
patriarchal society
A society in which men have most of the authority in the government and family life.
caste system
A type of social class system where a person is born into their social position, which is determined by their parents' occupations.
Vedas
Aryan religious hymns that were originally in spoken form only before later being written down. These hymns were an important influence on the development of Hinduism.
Sanskrit
The language used by the Aryans for their sacred writings. It is still considered a holy language today.
Forbidden City
The fortress where the Chinese emperor and his family lived. There were two main parts: one for state occasions, and one for personal use. Ordinary people could receive the death penalty if they entered.
sedentary
Remaining or living in one area; not migratory.
tribute
The payment that conquered peoples were forced to make to their conquerors.
practicioner
One who practices something, especially an occupation, profession, or technique.
feudalism
A loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord.
oracle bones
Animal bones used by the early Chinese to predict the future. After writing a question, a bone was heated until cracks formed that were then interpreted to answer the question.
steppe
Sparse, dry grassland.
Mandate from Heaven
The concept used to justify a dynasty's right to rule. It claimed that the right to rule was a gift, or mandate, from heaven. The mandate could only be withdrawn if the ruler abused his authority.
Taoism
Followers of the philosophy of Laozi. Belief in harmony with nature, and yin and yang (the dark and light of life).
Legalism
Followers of the philosophy of Hanfeizi. Emphasized strict laws and harsh punishments. Believed that the nature of man was evil.
Confucianism
Followers of the philosophy of Confucius. Believed in the five relationships which bring harmony to society. Stresses order.