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67 Cards in this Set

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An agreement between 2 nations to militarily support one another
alliance
An agreement between 2 nations not known to other nations, to militarily support one another
secret alliance
the two secret alliances
triple entente, and triple alliance
triple entente
france, britain, russia
triple alliance
germany, austria-hungary, italy
What factors caused nations to prepare for war?
secret alliances, nationalism, militarism, imperialism
love for one's country rather than native region Often leads to intense feelings of patriatism and belief that your country is better than others.
nationalism
Glorification of armed strength. European countries believed they could get what they wanted by having a strong army, so throughout the later 1800's/early 1900's they built up their strength.
militarism
The build of overseas colonies will lead to neccessary defense and englarged economics, allowing for the continued spending on military.
imperialism
What group planned to kill Archduke Franz Ferdinand?
The Black Hand
Who killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand and how?
19 year old Gavrilo Princip shot him and his wife
What did austria-hungary do when Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed?
Made an ultimatum to Serbia
Did Serbia accept the ultimatum, what happened?
no, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
What's an ultimatum?
if demands are not met, harmful action will follow
Who declared war on who?
Austria-Hungary on Serbia, Russia on Austria-Hungary, Germany on Russia, Germany on France, Great Britain on Germany
The new alliances
central powers and allied powers
central powers
germany, austria-hungary, ottoman empire, bulgaria
allied powers
great britain, grance, russia, italy, USA
advantages of central powers
1) germany's well trained and well-equpiped army
2) controlled territory from the north sea to the middle east
advantages of allied powers
1) more soldiers
2) greater industrial capacity
3) great britain's navy
- blockade the central powers
-get food and raw materials to the allies
innovations in warfare
U-boats, machine guns, poison gas, airplanes, tanks
U-boats
used by germans against allies
hard to detect
sunk military and civilian ships
used Convoy system to stop u-boats from sinking cargo ships
cargo system
cargo ship surrounded by military ships that could detect or take fire from u-boats
machine guns
more firepower than rifles
fire faster and w/o interruption
extremely deadly
fired by one man
a team needed to load and move it
poison gas
choked, blinded, disoriented, and/or killed men
problem: if the wind changed direction you sent poison gas on yourself
used masks for protection
airplanes
not fast or easy to maneuver
main job: find enemy
could drop bombs our windows or hold in bottom of plane
when airplanes engage in battle
dogfight
skilled dogfighters (pilots)
aces
Who is most famous dogfigher, how many planes did they shoot down?
The Red Baron (Germany) - shot down 80 planes
tanks
introduced by great britain in france in 1916
run on treads - easier to move over terrain
could drive through barbed wire
had machine guns attached
problem: if disabled easy to kill men inside
deep ditches from which soldiers fought
trenches
a slow wearing down process in which each side was trying to outlast the other
war of attrition
where neither side can gain any ground
stalemate
What lead to War of Attrition?
new technology and old military strategies
What was bad about russian gov?
not enough fod, guns, roads for troops
inefficient gov and porr military leadership made russian losses enormous
What was russian gov?
duma (elected legislative bod) and czar (king)
What happened between duma and the czar?
duma demanded chagne but czar Nicholas said no, so people and army supported duma and czar and family were imprisoned and eventually killed
political councils in new russian gov
soviets
two factors controlling soviets
mensheviks and bolsheviks
mensheviks
moderate political group
bolsheviks
radical political group
led by Vladimir Lenin
Lenin demanded all power be turned to soviets
slogan: "peace, bread, and land"
Lenin though Karl Marx's communism idea might not work so trained russian workers to be professional revolutionary force
What happened during the October Revolution, and when?
Nov. 7,1917 - Bolsheviks took control of the gov
what did bolsheviks rename themselves and when?
in 1918 - communists
Who did lenin's new gov sign treaty with?
russia to get them out of the war - russia fave up a lot of land to germany
What happened after russian got out of the war?
A civil war exploded b/c opponents to communism formed White Army and communists formed Red Army
How long was the civil war in russian and what happened?
3 years - red army (communists) won (1921)
What happened after the communists won the civil war in russia?
renamed russia the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Soviet Union (USSR)
How was the US involved before they entered the war, when was this?
neutral from 1914-1917
traded w/ allied powers and central powers until british blockade made central powers trade hard
american ships often carried contraband
war materials supplied by a neutral nation to a belligerent (enemy) one
contraband
What developments led the US into WWI?
Zimmermann Telegram
Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare
Russia dropped out of WWI
Zimmermann Telegram
Arhtur Zimmermann (german foreign minister) wrote telegram to Mexico
said: they'd help mexico regain TX, AZ, and NM if mexico joined germany's side and attacked the US
How did the us find out about the Zimmermann Telegram?
British intercepted it and US was enraged
what was the "war zone" around britain
where german submarines were - man yamerican ships, cargo, and lives were lost
How was the US effected when Russia dropped out of WWI?
then all allied powers were democracies (none of central powers were) and US wanted to support democratic ideals
What is the Treaty of Versailles?
the peace treaty Germany signed that officially ended WWI
The terms of treaty of verailles
dealt harshly with germany
didn't follow 14 points
germany took all responsibility for starting WWI
germany lost territory
restrictions placed on german gov.
formed the League of Nations
Downfall of treaty of versailles?
the allies don't have the powers to enforce it
What german territory was lost?
alsace-lorraine returned to france
belgium gained territory along its german border
poland made independant nation
How was poland able to make an independant nation?
they were given the Polish Corridor which game poland access to the sea and separated East Prussia from Germany
What restrictions were place on Germany?
-abolish military draft
-standing army of only 100,000
-not allowed to manufacture heavy artillery, tanks, or military airplanes
-no submarines in navy (only a few warships)
-can't fortify the Rhineland
2 aims of the League of Nations
-promote international cooperation
-keep peace by settling disputes & reducing armaments (weapons)
The 3 main businesses conducting League nations
assembly, council, secsetariat
assembly of the league of nations
-composed of representatives of all member nations
-each nation had one vote
council of the league of nations
-main peacekeeping body
-9 members (later 14)
-5 permanent members (great britain, france, italy, USA, and Japan)
secsetariat of league of nations
elected leader/spokesperson for the league of nations
What was closely related to the League of Nations, but separate?
World Court
What did the World Court do?
It determined cases involving international law.