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82 Cards in this Set

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London Economic Conference
Summer of 1933; 66 nations present to address global economic depression; FDR sent delegation, but withdrew them, caused conference to crumble; showed FDR valued domestic affairs over foreign policy; encouraged global trend toward EXTREME NATIONALISM
Good Neighbor policy
in effect 1933-45, stressed diplomacy and non-intervention; successful in isolating U.S.; made Southerners wealthier; made Lat Am like FDR
Hawley Smoot Tariff
an act that increased tariffs against other countries; prompted other countries to create tariffs against U.S. imports
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
1934 act to lighten the tariffs of the Hawley Smoot Act; changed U.S. international trade forever: trade more free, open
Nazi Germany
Hitler became leader of Nazi party campaigning against Versailles treaty and on anti-depression sentiments; 1933: Germany leaves League of Nations and began rearming; 1936: Hitler became allies with Mussolini (Rome-Berlin Axis); expansion: Austria (1938), Czechoslovakia/Sudetenland (1939); Poland (1939); Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium and France (1940)
Imperial Japan
1935: quits League of Nations; 1940: allied with Germany, Italy in Tripartite Pact; expansion: China (1937)
Nye Committee
named after Sen. Gerald Nye (ND); 1934: to investigate the "blood business" (ammunition manufacturing); studied causes of U.S. involvement in WWI; made citizens think that arms manufacturers start the war in order to earn money
Neutrality Act
1935, '36, '37: three acts that make isolation our official policy and keep us out of another conflict like WWI; when Pres. proclaimed existence of foreign war, we were restricted from sailing on belligerent ship, selling or transporting munitions to belligerent, make loans to belligerent; abanment of "freedom of seas" policy; seen as negative in that all nations were seen in the same light, whether good or bad (victim or aggressor)
Spanish Civil War
"dress rehearsal for WWII"; 1936-9: Spanish conservative Rebels headed by Franco, aided by Hitler and Mussolini, tried to overthrow the Loyalists (current gov't of liberal socialists); U.S. Congress ammended Neutrality Laws to apply arms embargo to both sides; all democracies helped condemn a fellow democracy to death out of desire to stay neutral
policy of appeasement
Munich Conference (1938): all Western Euro democracies met with Hitler, decided to let him have Sudetenland, betraying Czechoslovakia; by "appeasing" Hitler, they thought he would stop; but this was just "surrender on the installment plan"
Neutrality Act of 1939
allowed Euro democracies to buy U.S. arms on cash-and-carry basis; relaxed earlier Neutrality Acts; took sides with the democracies (over Germany, Italy, Spain)
preparedness (for war)
U.S. declares danger zones where U.S. ships shouldn't go; FDR gets congress to reserve $37billion for war preparedness: factories, mining operations, etc.
peacetime draft
first ever peacetime draft; September 6, 1940: 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves; later required in global wars
destroyers-for-bases deal
9/2/1940- Roosevelt agreed to transfer 50 destroyers to GB left over from WWI, in return, British gave US 8 army bases (remained under US control for 90 yrs.);
Lend-Lease Act
America lent/leased arms to European democracies under attack; meant to keep America out of WWII rather than drag it in; heavily debated- passed in March, 1941; at end in 1945, America had sent $50 bil. worth of arms & equipmen; passing of lend-lease was declaration of economic war (& Hitler recognized it as such); America's interest in helping Britain was self-serving: if we helped them, they could better resist Hitler and then America wouldn't be left having to face Hitler all alone; Act geared US factories for all-out war production (US would use these weapons later)
opponents of Lend-Lease Act and destroyers-for-bases deal
motto: "all methods short of war"; isolationist groups like America First Committee, with Charles Lindberg (first cross-Atlantic flight) as speechmaker; sarcastic slogan: "England will fight to the last American"; anti-administration Republicans
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
made in 1939 between Hitler and Stalin; June 22, 1941: Hitler broke pact and attacked Russia; Allies hoped Hitler and Stalin would just destroy each other (but Hitler gained upper hand quickly and Allies decided to help Stalin)
Atlantic Charter
August 1941, Churchill and FDR agree to pact like Wilson's "14 Points"; anti-imperialism (no taking over other nations); favored self-determination and free choice of gov't form for newly independent nations; sought charter for United Nations; disarmament; U.S. isolationists and anti-FDR factions opposed it
U-Boat warfare
U-Boat=German subs; U.S. Destroyer Greer follows U-Boat, is attacked, but no damage to either side; U.S. Destroyer Kearney lost 11 men in U-Boat battle, boat crippled but not sunk
Pearl Harbor
Japanese bombers attacked on "Black Sunday" (Dec. 7, 1941); 3,000 U.S. casualties and 8 major ships sunk; 3 aircraft carriers were out of the harbor and survived; changed U.S. opinion in favor of war, catalyzed war efforts
"grand strategy"
FDR wanted to "get Germany first"; some Americans wanted to get revenge on Japan, but FDR was more worried about making sure Hitler didn't take over England and consolidate European holdings
U.S. national unity during WWII
Pearl Harbor united country in war cause
Japanese internment camps
concentration camps for all people of Japanese descent (citizen or alien); internees lost homes, money, businesses and were deprived of dignity, basic rights
Korematsu vs. U.S.
1944: Supreme Court tries case of Korematsu vs. U.S., saying that internment camps were legal; 1988: U.S. apologizes, gives internees $20,000
Four Freedoms
painting by Norman Rockwell depicted freedoms we were afraid of losing if Axis powers won war: Freedom of Speech; Freedom of Worship; Freedom from Want; Freedom from Fear
war economy
War Production Board halted manufacture of non-essential items in favor of military goods; prioritized access to transportation and raw materials; limited wages for workers; 1943: Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act passed, authorizing gov't to sieze and operate "tied-up" industries; yet very few strikes during war (only 1% of total work hours wasted on strikes)
labor force
certain types of workers exempt from draft--they were needed at home; 1942: agreement with Mexico to allow temporary workers (braceros) in U.S. agricultural jobs; the bracero program lasted 20 years past the war; women: over 6 million women enter factory labor force; gov't set up 3,000 day care facilities for kids of working moms; after some kept working, contributing to a women's labor revolution; but 2/3 of women left the labor force, half of which quit voluntarily (the other half just lost their jobs)
wartime migrations
1.6 million Southern blacks to North and West inner cities (5 mill. black farmers also migrated north after war, as machines obviated farm jobs); many soldiers didn't go back, but stayed in cities; people mostly went to LA, Seattle, Detroit, Baton Rouge
African-American slogan: 1.) Victory for U.S. over dictators; 2.) Victory for global minorities against oppression; increased membership of NAACP to 500,000
A. Phillip Randolph
leader of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Negro March on Washington (1941)
March on Washington movement
1941: Randolph leads, demanding equal opportunities for blacks in war jobs and armed forces
economic boom before/during WWII
war invigorated economy, ended Depression; price controls lifted in 1946 and consumption drove prices up 33% in 2 years; helped unemployment
early Japanese victories
Japan taking over other places while Pearl Harbor was happening: Guam, Wake, Philippines; cut off the "Burma Road" by which the U.S. had been supplying China; Philippines: finally slowed Japanese progress; Battle of Coral Sea: fought on aircraft carriers at sea; stopped Japanese from Southward progress, but they continued East to Midway (near Hawai'i), and Kiska and Attu (near Alaska), increasing U.S. fears of Japanese invasion
Battle of Midway
island 1,000 miles NW of Honolulu; battle from June 3-6, 1942; U.S. victory halted Japan's annexation of Pacific Islands; Admirals Nimitz and Spruance commanded U.S. forces; major victory
"leapfrogging" and "island hopping"
U.S. fought Japanese one island at a time (island hopping); leapfrogging means skipping certain islands in order to capture neighboring islands for strategic advantages
Battle of the Atlantic
1943: Allies won, stopping Hitler from taking over Britain and a 2nd front could not have been launched; very narrow victory
Second-front controversy
FDR promised Soviets a second front in 1942 to help divide Hitler's forces; proved impossible to set it up in France (now German occupied); we instead set up N. Africa as second front; Nov. 1942, led by Eisenhower, biggest naval effort in history at that time; German and Italian armies surrendered in 1943; Italian second front opened Mediterranean and distracted some German aid, but also delayed Western main attacks directly on Germany
Casablanca Conference
1943: in Morocco, FDR and Churchill agree to become more aggressive with Japan in Pacific War, to invade Sicily (increase pressure on Italy), demand unconditional surrender of enemy (but it was just empty words--they hadn't yet won); showed lack of unity between Allies (U.S.-Britain and Russia)
Tehran Conference
Nov 28-Dec 1, 1943: in Persia (today "Iran"), Stalin, FDR, Churchill agree on to launch Soviet attacks on Germany from East and U.S.-Brit attacks from West
June 6, 1944: Allies storm the beach at Normandy; 4600 vessels landed, gained a position in France, started to drive Germans back out of France; France liberated August 1944
Cold War
WWII came to resemble WWI: U.S. and Soviets in isolation from international politics; with end of WWII, common enemy defeated, common cause disappeared; they became enemies; started in 1946, lasted 4.5 decades; based primarily on economic ideology: capitalism vs. communism; overshadowed global politics the entire time
Allied victory in Germany
mid-December 1944: Germany faltering; allies bomb non-stop; Hitler's last ditch attempt to take Atwerp (Belgian port); Germans push back the Allied lines, creating a "bulge" ("battle of the bulge"); Germany defeated, Americans push to Rhine River; Eisenhower reaches Elbe River in April 1945; U.S. troops meet up w/ Soviets who had fought through from the other side; discovery of the concentration camps; Hitler commited suicide; May 7, 1945: V-E Day (Victory in Europe)
Manhattan Project
directed by J. Robert Oppenheimer; in Alamogordo, New Mexico at Trinity test site; science combined with industrial capability; Einstein persuaded FDR to go ahead with project; FDR gave $2billion; intended to develop bomb for Germany, but Germany surrendered 2 months before bomb developed
dropping of the atomic bomb
August 6, 1945: Hiroshima, 180,000 killed, wounded or missing (70,000 instant deaths, 60,000 more died of injuries); Russia joins war against Japanese August 8; August 9th: Nagasaki, 80,000 killed or missing; Japan surrenders August 10; V-J Day
Yalta Conference
February, 1945: Stalin, Churchill, FDR; planned strategy for defeating Germans; Germany divided into occupation zones; Poland, Bulgaria, Romania were to have free elections; controversial decisions about Asia (gave control of Manchuria and some Japanese islands to Russia); set limits to Stalin's ambitions in China; the agreement was just an outline/intentions
foundations of United Nations
April 25, 1945: UN opens at San Francisco War Memorial Opera House; 50 nations attended; successor to League of Nations; Security Council: U.S., Britain, USSR, France, China; all memebers of Council have veto power; U.S. senate approved UN membership on July 28, 1945; established in NY; helped preserve peace in Iran, Kashmir, etc.; created Israel; created UNESCO, FAO, WHO; U.S. proposed no-veto, UN control over atomic weapons/energy; USSR proposed that all atomic tech be banned completely; U.S. refused; Soviets became suspicious, eventually backed the proposal to have UN just regulate (not ban) atomic tech
post-war Germany
wanted to get rid of Nazis; Nuremberg Trials: war crimes trials, 12 Nazi leaders executed, 7 imprisoned; controversial: tried for crimes that were not considered crimes before war began; division into four occupation zones: USSR, U.S., France, Britain; Western powers tried to reunite Germany, Stalin refused;
Berlin Airlift 1948
Berlin blockade: USSR cuts off access to Berlin via surrounding roads; Western powers airlift in supplies for 6 months;
post-war Poland
at Yalta, Stalin had agreed to make Poland a parliamentary democracy with free elections; part of northern Poland became Russian territory; Poland received land eastern Germany
Potsdam Conference
July 1945 (near Berlin): Stalin and Truman and British leaders meet; PACIFIC: decide to give Japan an ultimatum: unconditional surrender or massive destruction; lead to A-bombings; EUROPE: determined the division of Germany
Harry Truman
humble beginnings, no college ed.; very confident; became pres. when FDR died; started up UN right away; controversy over his support of friends in "Missouri gang"; tough, responsible
Yalta's effect on Pacific
Manchuria would go to Russia (not back to China) at war's end; Russia would get key bases around China, and would get Japanese islands in dispute
Stalin refused to pull his troops from Iran after WWII with the hopes that he could continue getting their oil; instead, decided to use his troops in Iran to start a rebellion
George Kennan
writer of "containment doctrine"
containment (Doctrine)
written by George Kennan; stated that Russia was basically expansionary & the only way to halt the spread of communism was to keep it in Russia
Truman Doctrine
March 12, 1947; asked for $400 million to prevent the spread of communism to Greece & Turkey; had the effect of dividing world into communist & non-communist countries
Marshall Plan
speech given by Sec. of State George Marshall; all European countries invited to work out agreement to aid them in post WWII monetary recovery; great success (although, Russia didn't accept any aid)
National Security Act
created Dept. of Defense w/ Sec. of Def.; est. National Sec. Council & CIA, groups that advise pres. on security matters
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; started by Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands & Luxembourg (later invited US); US decision to join= monumental b/k it signified a changed foreign policy; members agree to take attack on any other member as attack on all
Fall of China
Communists & Nationalists at war in China; Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi asked America for aid but Truman refused; issue divided Dem's & Rep's in America
Soviet A-Bomb
September, 1949- Truman announces that Soviets had dropped atomic bomb; analysts didn't believe Soviets had capability to develop A-bomb
loyalty probe
1947- Truman made list of 90 groups that were supposedly "disloyal"; once accused, groups never given chance to defend themselves
Committee on Unamerican Activities; aim was to locate supposed communists; Nixon (future Pres.) prominent member
Rosenberg convictions
relatives found guilty of espionage in 1951; electrocuted in 1953- only people in American history to be given death penalty in time of peace for espionage
Truman defeats Dewey
election of 1948; Thurmond (D) v. Truman (D) v. Dewey (R); w/ split of Dem's, Dewey's election seemed inevitable, so much so that papers printed that Dewey had won before official results were released; Truman's victory largely result of support from Blacks, farmers, & workers
Smith Act
11 communists found guilty of violating this "anti-rebellion" act; those sent to prison
Korean War
Korea: North- communist, South- not communist; Soviets & US left Korea & eventually, N began encroaching upon S to spread Communism; Truman evoked Containment Doctrine to intervene & stop N progress; Gen. Macarthur led US troops
Truman fires Macarthur
Macarthur became bold enough to publicly criticize Truman's decision to not revolt against the Chinese after they helped N Korea- b/k of this, Truman fired Macarthur
economic downturn
in peacetime- no jobs for GI's & war goods become not needed
GI Bill
appropriated $ for returning GI's education; gave something for GI's to look forward to; created VA to provide support for veterans; helped future wars avoid post-war depressions
Taft-Hartley Act
only accepted applicants for a given job if the person was part of that union; made unions responsible for self-inflicted damages; required union leaders to take non-communist oath
economic boom
America grew for 2 decades post WWII; paved way for Medicare & Civil Rights movements; women had jobs (1/4 of work force)- resulted in feminist movement of 60's
Truman fires Macarthur
Macarthur became bold enough to publicly criticize Truman's decision to not revolt against the Chinese after they helped N Korea- b/k of this, Truman fired Macarthur
economic downturn
in peacetime- no jobs for GI's & war goods become not needed
GI Bill
appropriated $ for returning GI's education; gave something for GI's to look forward to; created VA to provide support for veterans; helped future wars avoid post-war depressions
Taft-Hartley Act
only accepted applicants for a given job if the person was part of that union; made unions responsible for self-inflicted damages; required union leaders to take non-communist oath
economic boom
America grew for 2 decades post WWII; paved way for Medicare & Civil Rights movements; women had jobs (1/4 of work force)- resulted in feminist movement of 60's; cheap energy part of economic boom
after economic growth, many wanted to come to US, Americans decided to move to follow industrial jobs
Dr. Spock
wrote "The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care", a how-to book on child rearing; spoke to generation of families that moved around a lot by saying they didn't need outside support, only needed family unit
whites fled to suburbs; Fed. Housing Admin. & VA made owning your own house seem more appealing than renting apartment; govt. backed suburbanization by building highways to connect suburbs w/ cities
brothers who started tract housing
baby boom
huge leap in birth rates from 1945-1957