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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bhagavad Gita
Knowledge of truth; part of the epic poem Mahabharta
Epic poem in which Krishna preaches to Arjuna about the Path of Devotion
Mahatma Ghandi
Internationally- peacefully influenced the British removal from India.
Nationally- he called the Untouchables "God's People"
First is Path of Desire
Pleasure (Kama)
Worldly Success (Artha)
Second is The Path of Renunciation
Responsible duty (Dharma)
Third is moksha
Liberation/ Moksha/ release
Unlimited being, knowledge, joy/bliss
Strictures to Joy
Physical Pain, Psychological Pain, Ennui- boredome with life in general
Strictures to knowledge
ignorance, Sometimes details aren't as relevant as the whole picture
Stricture to Being
Identity with a longer reality
Spatially, in terms of time
Identity with humans as a whole
hindus believe in "one life" and that these individual human lives ae like smile "moments' in the large life
Ultimate reality
inner hidden self
the ultimate goal
Salvation through liberation
neti, neti
not this, not that
ancient philosophical texts that form the basis of most hindu doctrines
All reality shares the same essence
Hinduism's specific directions for actualizing the human potential
Comes from the English word "yoke"
Jnana Yoga
Reflexive; seeking knowledge; shortest but steepest path; Stages: learning that one's essential being is being itself, thinking that Atman must change from concept to reality, shifting self refer to ones self in the 3rd erson
Emotional, Seeking Brahmin through love
The most common path; basic principles in Bhakti yoga are also importatn in Christianity; no alterior motive, love God for God's sake alone; 3 feature of the bhakti approach: japam, ring the changes on love (Love for parents, sibling, lover) worship the form of God in whatever form you want (ishta)
Karma Yoga
Active, the path to Brahmin through work
2 modes: affective (Bhaktti approach), reflective (Jnana approach)
Experimentally, Psychophysical exercises.
Steps for Raja Yoga
1. overcome bodily cravings by abstaining from
- injury
- lying
- stealing
- sensuality
- greed
2. overcome mental inquietude by observing
- cleanliness
- contentment
- self-control
- studiousness
- contemplation of the divine
3. mastering the body through postures (lotus position)
4. mastering breathing
5. mastering the senses
6. concentration - focus the mind on one object
7. deepen to meditation - now focus on nothing
8. Samadhi = with god or absorbed in being itself
4 layers to the human self
bodies, minds, realm of individual self-consciousness, and Being itself or Atman
4 stages of Hindu life
Student, householder, retirement, sannyasin
Prime responsiblity is to learn
Prime responsibility is to prodce family
this is the time to satisfy the first three wants (pleasure, success, duty... or kama, artha, dharma)
this is the time to stify the first three wants (p
not with age, but realization that thee is more to life than pleasure, success, and duty
One who neither hates nor loves anything
Wanders everywhere, no fixed income
Is a non-entity/ not connected to anything
Has learned the art of keeping the finite self separate from infinite
4 stations of life
Brahmins- seers
Ksahtriyas- administrators
Vaishyas- producers
Shudras- servant
Perversions of the caste system
Outcasts, intermarriage/ inter-dining not allowed, subcastes emerged, privileges of upper-class are at expense of lower-class, it is hereditary (so how does that go along with reincarnation)
color (related to the caste system)
using the path to God through work, or the Hindu principle of cause and effect. It teaches that each action reacts upon the doer, and our present state is entirely a consequence of past actions
Hindu ideal of complete nonviolence
Ghandi's term for holding the truth
reincarnation of a God
The act of worship
Thich Nhat Hanh
Created his own order becuase he believed the monastic life was too far removed
Creator god
Preserver god
destroyer god
awakened/ enlightened one
Siddhartha Gautama's early life
born around 563 B.C. in what is now Nepal, born in the Sakyas clan thing, his father was a king, very luxurious upbringing, his father was told that he could rule the world if he stayed in it or if he forsook the world he would become a world redeemer. His father wanted him to stay in the world so he tried to make sure his son never saw suffering.
The four passing sights
 Old age
 Disease
 A corpse
 A monk
The great going forth
 Leaves wife and son
 Learns about Hinduism
 Joins a band of ascetics (Sujata saved his life)
Middle way
 It is good to be in the middle of the two extremes.
Beings meditating under the bodhi tree and has 4 temptations
 Kama  god of desire, temptation of 3 sexy women
 Mara  Lord of Death, temptation to fear
 Mara  challenged what he was doing (discontent)
 Mara  who would understand him? (reason)
the Buddha's band of monks
Dharma (Buddhism)
3 jewels of Buddhism
Sangha, Dharma, the Buddha
Characteristics of the Buddha
o He was really smart and people knew it – “veneration felt is contagious”
o He was one of the greatest rationalists
o He had respect because he was from a high caste, but he didn’t care.
o He had simplicity because he accepted that he was intelligent but refused to be seen as a god
o He had preternatural insight into character (could see through phoniness and accepted outcastes as monk)
o He was difficult to understand, so people gave Buddha the names Sakyamuni and Tathagata
Buddhism vs. Hinduism
Buhhism appeared over night
o Hinduism appeared over many centuries
o Buddhism is a reaction to Hinduism’s perversions
6 aspects of religion
Authority- had become hereditary
ritual- became means to obtain miraculous results
speculation- lost experimental base and became meaningless
tradition- dead weight, no one understood Sanskrit
Grace- Misunderstood to mean that humans have no responsibilities
Mystery- confused with mystification (obsession with miracles)
Original Buddhism
Empirical, scientific, pragmatic, therapeutic, psychological, egalitatian, directed to Individual
ancient language the vernacular of the time
5 Skandas
Body, sensations, thoughts, feelings, consciousness
4 noble truths
o Life is Dukkha (suffering)
o Dukkha is caused by Tanha (desire)
o The cure to Dukkha (life’s suffering) is through overcoming Tanha (desire)
o Overcoming Tanha is done through THE EIGHTFOLD PATH, SUCKAS.
Eightfold Path
o Preliminary step – right association
1. Right Views
2. Right Intent
3. Right Speech
4. Right Conduct
5. Right Livelihood
6. Right Effort
7. Right Mindfulness
8. Right Concentration
- It is hard to know for sure what Buddhists believe because
Partisan schools developed different interpretations, he was silent on crucial points, there is such a vast amount of matter in his first sermon,
 Life’s goal
 Literally “to blow out”
 To extinguish the boundaries of the finite self
 Nirvana is not a personal God, but he is a God-head (truth and a supreme reality)
 You cannot describe it
Anatta (no soul)
 There is no belief in “a spiritual substance that retains a separate identity forever”
 This is one main difference from Hinduism
 But Buddhism does believe in reincarnation and karma
 I’m reading this over and… it’s is too complicated, so sista won’t ask about it.
the transitoriness of everything finite (everything is constantly changing)
3 Marks of Existence
 Impermanence/transitoriness (annica)
 Suffering (dukkha)
 Absence of a soul/permanent identity (anatta)
– the holy one that has extinguished all desires (and elightened one)
 Ideal type for Theravada Buddhism
 Is not born or reborn
 History of the finite self disappears, experience remains and is heightened beyond recognition.
- The Split
o Hinayana/ Theravada/ Little Raft/ The Way of the Elders
 Progress is up to the individual – work more at it, you will get more out of it.
 Progress comes from wisdom
 Like fundamentalists, they are very committed to the original Buddhist texts
 To reach nirvana, you need to give up the world and become a monk
 The ideal person is an arhat who remains in nirvana after death
 Buddha is a supreme teacher; a saint
 Minimizes metaphysics
 Minimizes ritual
 Wanted to establish a Buddhism society.
 Sri Lanka, Burma, Cambodia, Tailand
Mahayana/Big Raft
 Enlightenment is sought through or with others by LOVE and compassion
 The world is connected
 Newer texts are just as important as the older ones
 The priests marry; everyone can reach enlightenment
 The ideal person is a bodhisattva, or one who essence is perfected wisdom. They have reached the brink of nirvana, but returns to world to help others reach it.
 Buddha is a savior; more than human.
 Elaborates metaphysics
 Emphasizes ritual
 They wanted to use physiological aspects of Buddhism, but not make it a social order
 China
 Japan
 Korea
 Tibet
 “the diamond Thunderbolt”
 A way of strength
 Not very much like the other two…
seated meditation
a flash of insight in which the true nature of one’s being is known directly
Sanzen (Rinzai)
Dokusan (Soto)
Definition: a private consultation concerning the meditation between the monk and master.
2 lineages for Zen
o Soto – gradual awakening
o Rinzai – sudden enlightenment
Body-based features of Vajrayana / Tibetan Buddhism:
Tantric sexual practices
Mantras- sound
Mudras- movement
Mandalas- sight
Dalai Lama / Avalokiteshvara / Goddess of Mercy Kwan Yin / Kannon / Chenrezig
manifestation of compassion, the bodhisattva- incarnates himself, 14 successive incarnations
Image of the crossing
the types of Buddhism are closer then you think. They are just different ways of getting to the shore. The two shores represent human and divine.
Buddhism’s Three Vows
1) take refuge in the Buddha 2) refuge in the Dharma 3) refuge in the sangha
The confluence of Buddhism and Hinduism in India
Hinduism absorbed some of Buddhism