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185 Cards in this Set

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Sacred
Set apart for worship of a deity or as worthy of worship
Profane
Nonreligious.

OUtside the Sphere of Religion.

Contemptuous of Religion
Secular
Not spiritual or religious
Myth
Story dealing with supernatural beings that represents the worldview of a people.
Epic
A narrative poem celebrating the acts of a traditional hero.
Rituals
Prescribed religious ceremonies
Scriptures
Sacred writings
Rite of Passage
A prescribed ceremonial act or series of acts.

The sign that a person is passing from one stage of life to another.
Vedas
Hinduism.

Knowledge or wisdom.

Scriptures
Dravidians
Hinduism

Dark-skinned inhabitants of India.

They differed from the light -skinned Arayans who entered from the northwest
Arayans
Hinduism

Indo-Europeans who entered the Indus Valley prior to 1000 BCE.

They expressed their evolving religion in the hymns of the rig-veda
Varna
Hinduism

Color once associated with caste
Caste
Hinduism

Permanent social group into which a person is born.

Social and religious obligations are determined for a lifetime by caste.
Shruti
Hinduism

Sacred Writings, such as the Vedas, based on what Hindu writers "heard" in revelation.

These writings are revealed knowledge.
Brahmanas
Hinduism

Commentaries and manuals prepared to instruct priests in the rites associated with the Vedas.
Aranyakas
Hinduism

A philosophical section interpreting ritual of the Vedas for ascetics living in the forest.
Upanishads
Hinduism

Sitting closely to a teacher; the last of the Vedas.
Vedanda
Hinduism

The end of the Vedas.

A name for schools of philosophy founded on teachings of the Upanishads.
Agamas
Hinduism

Scriptures from tradition.

These writings divide according to the deity worshipped in each
Manu
Hinduism

The first man
Itihasa-Purana
Hinduism

Ancient. 18 Puranas honor Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu
Mahabharta
Hinduism

A long epic powm featuring activities of the god Krishna
Ramayana
Hinduism

An epic of the ideal man, Rama, and Sita the ideal woman.
Purusha
Hinduism

Primal spirit, or soul of an individual
Agni
Hinduism

Fire

The Vedic god of fire.
Indra
Hinduism

Agod of the Rig-Veda. The Creator and ruler of the universe
Soma
Hinduism

Hindu deity of a plant that was intoxicating.

In the Vedas soma was used in worship
Varuna
Hinduism

Rig-Veda god of the high-arched sky.
Rita
Hinduism

God of order and priciples
Mitra
Hinduism

A deity of the Vedas.

A god of faithfulness and keeping promises.
Brahmin
Hinduism

name of the highest, priestly caste.

After the aryans were settled in India, the priests became more important than the warriors of the Kshatriya caste
Brahman
Hinduism

The highest diety, the Absolute
Maya
Hinduism

Appearance or illusion; power of creation
Guru
Hinduism

teacher of religous duties. For a student the guru represents the divine in human form
Prakriti
Hinduism

it refers to matter, as oppoosed to purusha(spirit)
Moksha
Hinduism

The release of the sould from a cycle of rebirths. It is one of the four acceptable goals of life for hindus
saguna Brahman
Hinduism

Form of Brahman with personlike qualities
nirguna Brahman
Hinduism

Brahman as himself...without attributes(impersonal)
Kalpa
Hinduism

a long period of the created world.

one world ends and a new period begins with another creation
Reincarnation
Hinduism

the soul leaves one body at death and is reborn in a new body. The soul remains the same.
Law of Karma
Hinduism

The inexorable principle in hinduism that a person's thoughts and deeds are followed eventually by desereved pleasure or pain.
Samsara
Hinduism

Concept of the wheel of rebirth that turms forever. Souls are reborn until they reach perfection
Shudra
Hinduism

the fourth caste, laborers. not even permitted to hear the readings of the Vedas.
Vaishya
Hinduism

The third hindu caste, that of merchants and artisans.

Its members participate in the Vedic practices of religion.
Kshatriya
Hinduism

Caste of Warriors and administrators. Originally highest caste but later subordinate to the Brahmins.
Krishna
Hinduism

An incarnation of Vishnu, who is also the chariot driver of the warrior arjuna of the Bhagavad Gita
Yoga
Hinduism

a path of discipline, four disciplines lead to release from rebirth
Jnana Yoga
Hinduism

Path of release based on intellectual knowledge.

Jnana yoga appeals to people who emphasize rational understanding of religious beliefs.
Bhakti Yoga
Hinduism

Personal devotion to deity. A path that leads to salvation
Samadhi
Hinduism

Concentration that unifies: absorption
Sannyasin
Hinduism

one in the last stage of renunciation or detatchment
Puranas
Hinduism

"Ancient Lore" treatises or the deities of popular hinduism
Brahma
Hinduism

Ultimate reality, the creator
Vishnu
Hinduism

The Supreme Lord; the preserver
Shiva
Hinduism

The Auspicious. Ultimate Lord; the destroyer
Tantras
Hinduism

Religious treatises for developing latent powers in persons.

Dialogues between Shiva and Shakti
Laws of Manu
Hinduism

Hindu code of conduct compliled about 200 b.c.e to 200 c.e.
Avidya
Hinduism

Ignorance, not seeing things as they are
Untouchable
Hinduism

a person, often Shudra who is considered to impure by the upper caste to allow physical contact.

it is has been abolished
Henotheism
A belief that affirms one deity without denying the existence of others.
Samskaras
Hinduism

The sacraments or rites by which a Hindu is fully integrated into the community
Upanayana
Hinduism

The initiation rite indicateing that a boy is a twice born person.
Janeu
Hinduism

Sacred thread worn by the three upper castes
Vivaha
Hinduism

Marriage, the rite of entry into the second stage (ashram) that of householder.
Antyesti
Hinduism

Funerals, last rites
Shraddha
Hinduism

Last rites. the prescribed ritual for the deceased
Puja
Hinduism

Worship. Worship of household deitieis.

Brahmins often performed rituals desired by householders.

The ritual worship of India.
Dharma
Buddhism

Law. Religion. One's support.

Law of the Universe. Law of the tradition taught by the buddha
Maya
Buddhism

Queen, the mother of the buddha
Siddharta Gautama
Buddhism

The Buddha
Suddhodana
Buddhism

King, Father of the Buddha
Yashodhara
Buddhism

wife of Siddharta Gautama
Bodhgaya
Buddhism

a temple that commemorates the grove where the buddha found enlightenment
Dukkha
Buddhism

term for the suffering of humans and other sentient beings
Tanha
Buddhism

Thirst or craving that leads to suffering.

In the Second Noble Truth it is revealed as the cause of suffering
Eightfold Path
Buddhism

The Fourth Noble Truth, the path of deliverance
Jhana
Buddhism

Meditation, or the states reached in buddhist meditation
Skandhas
Buddhism

Strands, similar strands of fiber in a skein of yarn.

Bodies sense organs
Pratitya-samutpada
Buddhism

Doctrine of dependant origination.

It explains the experienced universe without resorting either to chance or a first cause
Karma
Buddhism

The law that a persons thoughts and deeds are followed eventually by deserved pleasure or pain.

mostly psychological terms in buddhism.
Nirvana
Buddhism

The state of being free of egocentrism and the suffering that it causes
Tathagata
Buddhism

A title of the Buddha, meaning the one who has thus gone.
Tripitaka
Buddhism

The "three baskets" collection of BUddhist scriptures.

Comprimised of the "Vinya Pitaka" (monastic rules), "Sutta Pitaka" (discourses), and the "Abhidhamma Pitaka" (supplement to the doctrines)
Theravadins
Buddhism

The Elders, monks who imitated the Buddhas ascetic life to attain enlightment
Mahayanists
Buddhism

Those of the great vehicle, who emphasized universal Buddhist enlightenment.
Jatakas
Buddhism

Stories of the previous lives of the Buddha, which were collected and used in teachings of Theravadin monks
Bodhisattvas
Buddhism

People who have qualified to enter Nirvan, but who, out of their compassion for others remain available to help others
Nagarjuna
Buddhism

Philosopher of the second century c.e. who established the madhyamika school of philosophy.
Madhyamika
Buddhism

Philosophy that the phenomenal objects one experiences are not ultimately real.

School founded by Nagarjuna
Asanga
Buddhism

Responsible for making famous in the fourth century c.e. the Yogacara school of buddhist philosophy that was founded by Maitreyantha
Yogacara
Buddhism

School of philosophy that teaches taht neither the phenomenal world nor the mind is real.

Founded by Maitreyantha in the third century, made famous by Asanga in the fourth
Ashoka
Buddhism

This king, who reigned in India 273-232 bce

sponsored buddhist missionary activities
Tian Tai
Buddhism

Mahayana Buddhist sect of China (and Japan) that is based on the Lotus Sutra.

All beings can actualize their Buddha Nature and become buddhas
Zhiyi (Chi-kai or Chi-i)
Buddhism

The monk who founded the Tian Tai sect of Buddhism in China
Hua-Yen
Buddhism

The chinese buddhist sect whose primary buddha is Vairocana.

The school had a holistic view of Buddha nature and the universe
Jingtu (ching-t'u)
Buddhism

Pure land, Western Paradise.

It believes in Sukhavati, which is ruled bby Amitabha Buddha (in Japan this sect is Jodo)
Amitabha (Amida)
Buddhism

Buddha who presides over western paradise.
Guan Yin
Buddhism

Bodhisattva of mercy, is also known as Avalokiteshvara.

She is placed beside Amitabha as his attendant
Bodhidharma
Buddhism

The monk who brought meditative buddhism to China

His example inspired Chan (zen) Buddhism
Chan
Buddhism

CHinese Buddhist school of mediitation founded by Bodhidharma
Zen
Buddhism

Japanese Buddhist meditiation sect (in china its chan) that was based on the practices of of the Indian Buddhist, Bodhidharma
Saicho (Dengyo Daishi)
Buddhism

The monk who introduced Tendai (T'ien-T'ai) Buddhism in Japan. He helped the emperor Kwammu establish a new capital at Kyoto, diminishing the power of the Buddhist at Nara
Kukai (Kobo Daishi)
Buddhism

9th Century founder of the Jap Buddhist Shingon sect.

All buddhas are emanantions of the great sun, Vairocana (Dainichi in Japan)
Shingon
Buddhism

Japanese for the chinese Chen Yen school of Buddhism.

It Taught that matter and other Buddhas emanate from Vairocana
Vairocana
Japanese Buddhism

The sun, who is also buddha.

It is also Dainichi and Amaterasu
Mantra
Buddhism

Special formula of words recited worship
Mudras
Buddhism

Special positions of hands used in worship
Ryonin
Buddhism

In early 12th century, founder of Amida worship in Japan
Jodo
Japanese Buddhism

Pure land

Founded by the monk Genku

Salvation comes thru grace and faith
Genku (Honen Shonin)
Buddhism

Founded Jodo, trained at Tendai monestaries at MT. Hiei
Hozo Bosatsu
Buddhism

In Shinran Buddhism, a meritorious person who became Amida Buddha
Shinran
Buddhism Japan

Genku's Disciple who established the Jodo-shin Sect of Buddhism in Japan
Dhyana
Buddhism

Mental concentration, meditation
Satori
Japanese Buddhism

Term for zen buddhist enlightenment
Koan
Buddhism

A problem used by Zen Buddhists to reduce dependance on ordinary ways of thinking about self and the universe
Nichiren
Buddhism

A monk in Jpan who established a school based on the Lotus Sutra
Bon
Buddhism Tibet

Ancient animistic religion of Tibet
Tara
Buddhism Tibet

The popular mohter goddes of Tibet, associated with Avalokiteshvara, the Lord Who Looks Down.
Kalachakra
Buddhism Tibet

The space-time doctrine in Tibet.

The whole universe is related in its flow to the vital currents of the human body
Nyingmapa
Buddhism Tibet

The Red Hat Buddhists of TIbet.

Thier Buddhism retained an element of pre-Buddhist beliefs and practices
Gelugpa
Buddhism Tibet

Yellow Hats, reformed the practices of the Nyingmapa.
Lama
Buddhism Tibet

Supreme Being, highest priest in Tibetan Buddhism
U Nu
Buddhism

20th Century Buddhist leader in Burma, active in the United Nations
Soka Gakkai
Buddhism Japan

Value Creation Society, buddhist laypeople
Makiguchi (Tsunesaburo)
Buddhism Japan

Founder of Soka Gakkai in 1937
Anicca
Buddhism

Impermanence.

The Buddhist Doctrine that there are no permanent entities. All phenomena continuously change.
Trikaya
Buddhism

Three bodies of Buddha.

the first was indescribable

the second is the almost divine body in which the Buddha appeared to the Mahayana faithful

the third was his appearance as a human being
Anatta
Buddhism

Pali word for no soul, or sanskrit for no Atman
Maitreya
Buddhism East Asia

The next Buddha to appear on Earth.
Shvetambaras
Jainism

The Jains who follow the tradition that aloows monks to wear clothes.

Also believe women can obtain release from life without being reborn as men.
Digambaras
Jainism

Monks do not wear clothing

Also believe women must be reborn as men in order to obtain release.
Tirthankara
Jainism

A spiritual leader who has found the crossing, or ford, to the farther shore
Jina
Jainism

A peson who has conquered rebirth.

Mahavira was a Jina
Ishatpragbhara
Jainism

The Jain state beyond life and death.
Agamas
Jainism

The collection of Jain scriptures, it is subdivided into three categories:

Purva, Anga, and Angabahya
Loka
Jainism

The Universe where categories of sentient beings are reborn
Trioka
Jainism

The areas of the Universe considered together.

Upper, middle and lower.
Jiva
Jainism

The soul.

Opposite of ajiva (body)

A monad is a single unit of basic substance.
Ajiva or Nonjiva
Jainism

Category of existence that is insentient; lacking soul.
Ahimsa
Jainism

The Sanskrit word that is translated "nonviolence."

Reverence for all living things
Sallekhana
Jainism

A holy death achieved by fasting.
Sthanakvasis
Jainism

A sext of Jains that separated from the Shvetambaras over use of idols in worship.
Kabir
Sikhism

A muslim who believed that God can save anyone of any caste from the law of Karma
Sant
Sikhism

A punjabi tradition based on Bhakti worship of Vishnu
Japji
Sikhism

Hymn recited in devotions every morning.

A guide for Sikh conduct
Guru (Sikh)
Sikhism

One of ten early spiritual leaders.

God is the one true guru
Singh
Sikhism

Gobid the 10th Guru initiated this term meaning "lion" of the Sikhs.

These men are willing to die for their faith
Adi Granth
Sikhism

Scriptures, comprised of guru hymns
Gurdwara
Sikhism

A place of worship, fellowship, and hospitality.

Also the title for a Sikh priest
Bhais
Sikhism

Brothers of a Sikh gurdwara who assist in worship.

Another title for a Sikh priest
Nihangs
Sikhism

Those with military skills, always ready to fight for the community.
Yang
Taoism

In China, the male side of the Dao.

It is exemplified in bright, warm and dry conditions.

It is opposite of Yin
Yin
Taoism

In China, the female side of the Dao (Tao)

Exemplified by dark, cool, and moist conditions.

Opposite of Yang
Dao (Tao)
Taoism

The path, course, or way to the universe.

Although its influence is in nature, the eternal Dao is believed to be hidden from empirical experience.
Yijing (I Ching)
Taoism

An ancient book of CHina that assists people in deciding how to plan their lives in accord with the forces of the universe.

It influences both Taoism and Confucianism
Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching)
Taoism

The Way and Its Power.

A book attributed to Laozi, founder of Daoism
Laozi (Lao Tzu)
Taoism

The sage of China once bleieved to have been the author of the Dao De Jing.

Regarded as the founder of Taoism
Wuwei
Taoism

Principle of accomplishing tasks without assertion.

Individuals in harmony with the flow of the Tao can accomplish more than individuals who assert themselves.
Zhuangzi
Taoism

A later Taoist.

Wrote to distinguish Taoism from Confucianism.
Shang Di
Taoism

The lord of heaven.

Ancestors are believed to be obedient to Shang Di as libing persons are to the emperor.
Jade Emperor
Taoism

Mythical emperor of ancient China.

In 1012 C.E. the emperor Chen Tsung claimed to have recieved revelation from Huang Di, the Jade emperor.
Zaoshen (Tao Shen)
Taoism

The god of the stove.

The stove was the essential in family life and in work of the Daoist alchemists.
Three Purities
Taoism

Three deities of Daoism:

Ling Bao, the Jade Emperor, and Lao Tzu.
Taixi (T'ai-hsi)
Taoism

Art of embryonic breathing, a method of holding ones breath in contemplation
Shouyi (shou-i)
Taoism

To preserve the One, or to meditate on the One.
Confucius
Confucianism

Kongfuzi, Chinese founder of Confucianism (551-479 BCE).

Primarily a teacher, he sought to develop good governmnet through a responsible rule and ethical people.
Junzi (chin-tzu)
Confucianism

The gentleman or superior man.

He was a role model for the conduct of the Chinese people
Li Ji (Li Chi)
Confucianism

The Chinese Classic on rites supposedly edited by COnfucius.

Although one of five confucian classics, it is now regarded as coming from a period later than Confucius.
Li
Confucianism

Principle of righteousness or propriety.

Li can refer to ritual and correct conduct in society
The Five Relationships
Confucianism

Ruler-Subject
Husband-Wife
Father-Son
Older Brother-Younger Brother
Elder Friend-Younger Friend
Yi
Confucianism

Internalized Li, or righteousness;

Li as it has become a part of an individuals conduct.
Ren (jen)
Confucianism

Juman principle, based on fellow-feeling.

It is having deep empathy or compassion for other humans
Shu
Confucianism

Reciprocity

Individuals treating others as they would like to be treated.
Mohists
Confucianism

Followers of Mozi (Mo Tzu).

Advocated curing the ills of society by practicing mutual love among people.

Confucians objected to Mohist universal love because it did not allow for special feeling for kin.
Mozi (Mo Tzu)
Confucianism Related

Founder of Mohist philosophy.

Principle of sharing essentials of food, clothing and shelter
Fajia (Fa-Chia or Legalists)
Confucianism Related

Philosophy that taught governance by reward and punishment
Han Feizi
Confucianism Related

Representative of Legalist thought.

He taught that people were governed best by a ruler who harshly enforced rigid laws.
Zhongyong (chung yung)
Confucianism

Doctrine of the constant mean, the path between extremes of conduct.

Superior man avoids excess.
Mengzi (Menicus)
Confucianism

A later disciple of Confucius who emphasized an inborn goodness of humans.

He differed from Xunzi, who argued that men are born evil.
Xunzi (Hsun Tsu)
Confucianism

Confucian who argued that humnans are evil by nature and must be taught good rather than evil.

Opposite thoughts of Menicus
Zhuxi (Chu Hsi)
Confucianism

Leader of the neo-Confucian revival in the 12th century
Taiji (Tai Chi)
Confucianism

Great Ultimate in Zhuxi's philosophy.

It is the rational law, or Li, that works within everything
Sun Yat-sen
Confucianism

Leader of the republic in China after the fall of the Manchus in the 19th century.

Reasserted Confucian Values
Chiang K'ai Shek
Confucianism

Leader of Nationalist China (until 1949, when he fleed to Taiwan to escape the Communists Coupe)

Also preserved Confucian virtue
Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Confucianism

Leader of Chinese Communists.

Strongly critized confucianism. Thought it was backward thinking.