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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
“Raga Nat Bhairav,” CD 2 Track 12, Chapter 8
- Featured instruments- slide guitar, tabla (drum), tambura
-Prominent performers- belonging to the family of raga bhairav- one of the many names used for shiva the Hindu deity of destruction
-Vishwa Mohan Bhatt, Kumar Bose, Shefali Nag play on this one
-Ravi Shankar plays it as well but not on this cd!
-Important inspiration/source material-reconfigured guitar to be more Sitar like and made the sliding guitar
-Genres represented- Raga Bhairav and Raga Nat
“Music from the Muqam,” CD 3 Track 30, Chapter 13
-Featured instruments-Zheng and drum
-Prominent performers- Zhou Ji, Shao Guangchen, and Li Mei
-Important inspiration/source material- from Uighur tradition known as Dolan Muqam. This is a pure village style representing the rough raw end of Uighur music. These people were the poorest most despised class. They served the Chinese administrations indentured serfs and are known fro rebellion.
-Genres represented: Muqam
“Atlanta Kaira,” CD 2 Track 25, Chapter 10
Featured instruments- koras, bala, koni, guitar
-Prominent performers- Toumani diabate, Taj Mahal, and Ensemble
-Important inspiration/source material--discovered the kora in 1970, he thought the kora artistry of Konte was something truly profound and personal
-He went to Mali in search for his musical roots and met Toure and Diabate, He produced the CD Kulanjan, which he said represented the culmination of a long and fascinating musical roots odyssey bringing blues and Malian music back together
-Genres represented: African blues
“Gravelwalk,” CD 2 Track 20, Chapter 9
Featured instruments- acoustic fiddle and electric violin, uillean pipes, Irish wooden flute, electric bass, and drum set
-Prominent performers- Eileen Ivers group
-Eileen ivers, Jerry O Sullivan, Seamus Egan, Bakithi Kumalo, and Steve Gadd
-Important inspiration/source material- She was an Irish immigrant in NYC. Lived in a community where Irish music, dancing, and social and cultural values were a basic par of life. The environment in which she was raised was a diversely multicultural one and this affected the formation of her music and cultural identity as much as her Irish heritage. . She grew up listening to salsa, rock, jazz Broadway and classical.
-Genres represented: Celtic
“Oye Como Va,” Tito Puente version, CD 3 Track 5, Chapter 11
-Featured instruments-saxophones, trumpets, trombones, flute, whistling
-Prominent performers-Tito Puente
-Important inspiration/source material: multicultural upbringing and eclectic musical background shaped his multifaceted conceptions of his own identity throughout his life. He identified himself as Puerto Rican although he grew up in NY. Enrolled at Julliard. Post WW2 there was a growing market for dance bands that played Cuban derived Latin music. First big hit Mambo #5
-Genres represented: Latin
“Oye Como Va,” Santana version, CD 3 Track 6, Chapter 11
-Featured instruments- electric guitar and B-3 electronic organ
-Prominent performers: Carlos Santana and Greg Rolie
-Important inspiration/source material: Cha Cha remodeled version of Puente’s version except he replaced the flute and horn riffs with his guitar.
-Genres represented: jazz
Middle East
Terms to know: Orientalism- representation of Asian and Middle Eastern cultures based on exoticism and possible stereotyping
Mysticism-religious belief or practice whose goal is direct, personal experience with the divine
People to know about:Nusret Fateh Ali Khan- Pre-eminent singer of the 20th century who brought international attention to Qawaali tradition
The Egyptian Ghawazi tradition
-class of female dancers originating from Ancient Egypt or 16th Century Gypsy Immigrants
-“Ghawazi” means foreigner..Speaking to marginalized social status of dancers
-ghwazi filled commercial demand for professional dancers
-Catered to Orientalized fantasies of patrons
-1800s ban of Ghawazi led to economic and cultural decline in Cairo
Symbolism of instruments in Sufi music
-Ney reed- reed plucked from a reed bed like soul separated from a spiritual home
*Hollow out reed like soul free from ego
*Holes symbolize personal suffering
*Soul becomes an instrument for use by God
-Tambourine-circular shape representing the universe
-Lute- Representative of the human body
-Clapping- separation and union with the divine
India
Terms to know: Nada Brahma-Sound of God “Na”-breathe “da” fire
Sound is the creative vital force by which the entire universe is animated

People to know about:Yehudi Menuhin-greatest violinist
-influential in bringing yoga to west through BKS Lyenagar
- met Ravi in Paris as kids and then became friends in Inida
-invites Shankar to perform in NYC
-Ravi and Menhuin West meets East performance won Grammy for best chamber
Music performance 1967

Ravi Shankar- greatest Sitar player of the 20th century
-born into an upper class Brahmin
-toured Europe as a Sitar player and dancer with brother Uday’s music troupe
-1938 initiated into Maihar Gharana family as a disciple of “baba” allaudin khan
-began to rise in 1950s bc of radio, film scores, and tours

George Harrison-finds prop sitar on set of beetle’s movie HELPS!
-goes to India with Shankar to study Sitar
-helps Shankar become international superstar
-performs sitar on multiple beetle songs
-1969 embraces Hara Krishna movement
-introduces Radha

Bhakti Yoga and Kirtan
-Bhakti Yoga is the yoga of love and devotion
-popular movement n Krishna Rama, Shiva worship in India CE 600
-spread by mystic poet singers
-focused on forging a relationship between the devotee and god
• Egalitarian movement that broke down caste barriers and rejected rituals that required the mediation of the priestly class
• Yoga involves service, friendship as well as chanting
• Chaitanya Mahaprabhu: 15th century saint and Bhakti reformer who popularized ecstatic singing as worship

-Kirtan
• Call-and-response devotional singing between soloist and congregation
• Texts include hymns and sacred mantras, including names for God
• Singers often accompanied by harmonium, drums, ecstatic dancing

India’s Hindustani and Karnatic music traditions
• Karnatic music: South India
• Hindustani music: North India
• Both traditions employ raga/tala, share musical concepts
• Karnatak music shows basic Sanskrit, Hindu roots of music
• Hindustani music shows influence of Persian, Mughal culture


Raga and Tala
• Raga: a melodic mode, or system of scales, melodic figures, and ornaments that are internalized and serve as a template for improvisation
There are hundreds of ragas in use in Indian music
Each Raga set is defined by
• Set of ascending and descending pitches (may be different going up and down)
• Set of melodic ornaments and melodic motives, including microtonal inflections
• Rules and procedures for putting them together
• Set of pre-composed compositions that may be integrated into performance
• Extra musical associations:
– Emotional character
– Time of day
– Season, etc.
How a raga grows
• Alap: slow, abstract, unmetered section by melodic instrument and drone
– Test of the soloist’s improvisational skill
– Each tone, pattern of raga introduced w/ ornaments and microtonal ornaments
– Gradually expands melodic range, becomes more metered, until a regular pulse is established
• Gat: metered section
– Announced by drum flourish, then metric cycle set out
– Dialogue between melodic soloist and drummer
– Gradual increase in tempo and intensity until final climax

• Tala: metric cycle which provides rhythmic framework for improvisation
As with raga, there are many talas to choose from in performance

Instruments used in raga performance and their functions:
-Tambura
• Plucked chordophone
• Function: drone
• 4-5 strings tuned to crucial sitar tones
• Thin threads underneath strings give distinctive swirling wavelike timbre
-Sitar
• Long-necked plucked chordophone
• Function: lead melody
• 6-7 strings (some for melody, some for drone) plus 13 sympathetic strings for resonance
• Movable frets for tonal flexibility
• Hollow fingerboard for bending strings, adding ornaments
-Tabla
• Pair of single-headed drums
• Higher pitched drum with clear ringing tone and lower-pitched drum with deep, resonant tone
• Pitch can be bent with pressure on the drum head
• Wide variety of hand/finger strokes gives wide variety of sounds
-Other: Sarangi (plucked chordophone), Sarod (Bowed Chordophone), violin, Shehnai (double-reed aerephone), Bansuri (flute)

Rasa theory in Indian drama
-human moods correlating with transcendent emotions\
-Goal to inspire empathy, to help audiences experience rasas and achieve a state of catharsis examples: erotic, love, anger
Diegetic and non-diegetic film music
-Diegetic (source of music)
• Visible or implied source onscreen
• Heard by characters onscreen
• Exists as part of narrative
-Non diegetic (underscore)
• No visible source of music
• Heard only by audience
• Exists outside of narrative
Indonesia
The 3-part Agama Hindu universe
• Upper World
– Located: heavens above Mount Agung
– Inhabited by: Trimurti gods, venerated ancestors
• Middle World
– Located: Bali itself
– Inhabited by: Balinese people
• Lower World
– Located: sea and below
– Inhabited by: evil spirits, malevolent creatures

Texture and organization of gamelan music
-Colotomic Cycle
• Cyclic measurement of time, anywhere from 6 to 108 beats
• Certain beats within a cycle marked by different instruments
• Played by: hanging gongs, kajar/kempli
• Ex: 16-beat ketawang:
Gong Ageng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X
Ketuk . x . . . x . . . x . . . x . .
Kempul . . . x . . . . . . . . x . . .
Kenong . . . . . . . x . . . . . . . .
Kempyang x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x .
-Core melody
– Slow-moving melody that acts as steady base for the rest of the piece
– Played by low-pitched gangsa
-Elaborated melody
– Fast-moving elaborations on core melody
– May be several layers of elaboration
– Faster variations played on higher-pitched instruments
– Performed by high-pitched gangsa, gong chimes, suling, rebab, voices


Kecak
• Gamelan Suara genre pioneered by Walter Spies for movie The Isle of Demons
• Kecak expands the sanghyang dedari ensemble, applies it to dance-drama performance of Ramayana
• Singers portray monkey army in the Abduction of Sita
– Hero Rama’s wife Sita is kidnapped by demon Ravana
– Hanuman the monkey god leads a monkey army to rescue her
• Vocal gamelan recreates gamelan gong cycles, melodies, and textures of gamelan using onomatopoeic syllables



The use of Gamelan Beleganjur in cremation processions
• Atma=soul
• Cremation the first step in freeing atma from Middle world to begin journey to Upper world
• Body is carried in wadah (tower) to Temple of the Dead for burning
• Community procession accompanies body
• Keeps up the tempo of the procession
• Announces to Upper World spirits the departure of atma from this world, asks them to receive the soul
• Frightens bhutas and leyaks away evil spirits
• Gives courage to deceased spirit so it will not run away
• Accompanies cremation as song of farewell to soul
• Music acts as a ladder on which atma ascends to heaven
China
People to know about:
--Cui Jian-
• Cui Jian pioneers Chinese Rock in the mid-1980’s
• Unlike more popular Canto-pop, Chinese rock has connections with social protest movements
• Cui Jian song “Nothing to My Name” becomes anthem of Chinese democracy movement
• Cui Jian performs at 1989 Tianenmen Square protest
• Excessive military force used at Tianenmen Square becomes symbolic of struggle against authoritarian rule

Chinese instruments
-Qin
• 7 string board zither chordophone
• Popular among junzi: high class individuals believed to possess superior moral character
• Usually played solo, often in solitude, as an aid to enlightenment, discipline, reflection

-Zheng
• Board zither chordophone
• 16 or 21 strings laid across wooden frame with resonating chamber
• Movable bridges can be positioned for different tunings
• Strings capable of intricate and beautiful ornaments
• Related historically to Japanese koto, Mongolian jatag, Vietnamese dan tranh, Korean kayagun
-Sheng
• Mouth organ; aerophone with many reed pipes
-Pipa
• Four string plucked lute chordophone
-Erhu
• Bowed two-string chordophone
-Xiao
• End-blown bamboo flute



Cultural Revolution and Revolutionary Opera
-Cultural Rev
• Movement instigated by extremist Gang of Four with goal to rid Chinese culture of anything “alien to the egalitarian spirit of socialism”
• Oppression of religion, ethnic minorities, intellectuals, the arts, anyone who disagreed with the party
• Enforced through deportation to camps, torture, execution
• The arts, among other intellectual activities, condemned as elitist, outdated
• Only revolutionary songs or instrumental performances approved by the government were allowed
• Musical, artistic, intellectual development of Chinese culture grinds to a near halt
• Destruction of many Chinese cultural treasures
-Rev Opera
• Eight Model Plays: government-sanctioned operas and ballets on revolutionary themes
• Revolutionary reforms of opera:
– Contemporary themes, plots, costumes
– Realistic staging, ordinary speech,
– Stylized characterization and gestures removed
– Traditional opera melodies interspersed with revolutionary songs
– Some adoption of Western instruments and harmonies
African
Musical Africanisms
• Complex polyphonic textures
– Rhythmic complexity
• Layered ostinatos with varied repetition
• Conversational element
– Call-and-response
– Multiple voices
– Music-dance dialogue
• Improvisation
• Timbral variety:
– Buzzing, rattling, and other timbre effects
• Distinctive pitch systems and scales


Traditional role of jelis
-Social Roles
• Musician
• Praise singer
• Historian
• Genealogist
• Social/political commentator
• Satire, humor
• Arbitrator



Who becomes a jeli
• Royal Jeli: hereditary class of professional musicians
• Kouyate, Diabate, Sissoko families trace lineage to the courts of early Mali empire
• Formerly employed as praise singers by royalty
• Now hired by politicians or other wealthy patrons
• Significant presence in international recording industry
• PR specialist
• Diplomat


Jeli instruments
-Kora
• Most well-known non-percussion African instrument, global symbol of African music
• 21 string spike harp chordophone
• Two parallel sets of strings strung on straight neck that passes through calabash or half gourd resonator
• Performer holds instrument by two handgrips, plucks with thumbs, forefingers
• Traditionally played seated on floor, w/ tailpiece on floor to add resonance
- Bala: xylophone-type wooden idiophone w/ 3-octave range
- Koni (or ngoni): banjo-like plucked chordophone
Ireland
People to know about:
-Seamus Ennis-
• Great Irish musical icon
• Son of prominent piper who grew up with great traditional musicians passing through the home
• Hired by national folklore commission, national radio station, and the BBC to travel through Ireland recording local traditions
• Credited with documenting local Irish traditions and getting them to the public

-Planxty
• 1970’s leaders of the second wave of Irish music revival
• Enjoyed friendship and admiration of piping legend Seamus Ennis
• Credited with updating the traditional sound and giving it a youthful flair
• Credited with pioneering the modern Irish ensemble sound

-The Pogues
• Formed 1982 by punk musician Shane McGowan
• Pioneered Celtic punk by fusing traditional Irish sounds, instruments w/ punk energy and sensibility
• Themes include Irish nationalism, Irish republicanism, working class pride, drinking
• Gained cult following, but early career derailed by McGowan’s self-destructive behavior
• Re-formed in 2002

Dance rhythms
• - Jig: triple subdivision
– S w w S w w S w w S w w
• Hornpipe: like a slower reel
• Reel: duple or quadruple subdivision
– S w S w or S w w w S w w w

Neo-traditional approach to Irish music
• Combines old-fashioned solo traditions and playing styles with sophisticated arrangements
• Shifts emphasis from solo performance to ensemble-based sound
• Introduces rhythm and harmony instruments to ensemble (rather than having all instruments play the melody)
• Innovative use of textures and changing combinations of instruments

Irish diaspora
• Irish potato famine, political instability, economic downturn spur immigration from Ireland to UK, USA, etc.
• Particularly strong communities in Boston and New York City
• Irish communities outside of Ireland preserve and develop traditional music as touchstone of identification with the homeland
• Prosperity, travel, tourism, mass media, communication technology connect diaspora culture to the homeland
• Ireland experiences revitalization of music in the homeland by Irish outside off Ireland who preserved it
• Development of a transnational pan-Irish musical culture
Latin America
Major cultural strands of Latin American music and what they contributed
• Native American
– Music was functional in ritual, celebration, etc.
– Music was based on communal oral tradition
• African
– Polyphonic textures, rhythmic complexity
– Layered ostinatos
– Conversational element
– Improvisation
– Timbral variety
– Distinctive pitch systems and scales
• European
– Spanish music already a blend: Western European, Arabic, Gypsy, Nordic, Indian, Judaic…

Danzon
Up until 19th c. white Cuban society relied on European music and dance genres
• Disenchantment with economic restrictions, government corruption, and Spain led to white Cubans distancing themselves from European identity and past.
• Hybrid African and European forms like danzon reflect emerging Cuban identity, anti-Spanish nationalist movement, more (racially) inclusive idea of being Cuban means
• By 1920’s danzon essentially national dance of Cuba

Cha cha cha style
• 1950 bandleader Enrique Jorrin records first cha cha cha record “La Enganadora”
• His approach: create Cuban dance-music style accessible to non-Cubans (i.e. Americans)
– Make it simpler, less exhausting
– Dispense with syncopated rhythms, replace the with “four-square rhythm” with steady, clear quadruple beat
– Medium tempo range
– Simple footwork that’s easy to learn (one-two-cha cha-cha)
– Harmonized call-and-response singing replaced with simpler unison texture
• Cha Cha Cha becomes international phenomenon
• Eventually oversimplification (and rock n roll) killed the cha cha cha

Big Band Mambo musical style
• As son begins to eclipse danzon in popularity, danzon-mambo emerges as more African-ized version
• 1949 Perez Prado has first international hit “Mambo #5”
• “Mambo Kings” Machito and the Afro-Cubans, Tito Rodriguez and Tito Puente take mambo to new heights of popularity in the U.S.
• Mambo borrows from jazz and popular music without softening Afro-Cuban percussion and rhythm

Fania All-Stars
• 1964 Fania Records established in Manhattan under Johnny Pacheco
• Recorded young inner city artists playing energetic blend of Latin dance and big band jazz; records become popular in Newyorican community
• 1971 Fania All Stars created; group finds broad audience and starts playing stadiums and arenas